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Introduction CSCI 444/544 Operating Systems Fall 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction CSCI 444/544 Operating Systems Fall 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction CSCI 444/544 Operating Systems Fall 2008

2 Agenda Course overview - course coverage - course workload OS overview What is an operating system? How have operating systems evolved? Why study operating systems?

3 Course Coverage -What are the major components of an OS? -How are the components structured? -What policies are typically used in an OS? -What algorithms (mechanisms) are used to implement policies

4 Course Workload Four programming projects Two exams (open book and notes) A few homework assignments (paper and pen)

5 What is an Operating System? OS: Everything in system that isn’t an application or hardware OS: Software that converts hardware into a useful form for applications Not easy to define precisely… Users Hardware Operating System Applications compilers databases word processors CPU memory I/O devices

6 Abstract View of Computer Systems

7 What is an Operating System? A software layer to abstract away and manage messy details of hardware resources, providing an extended machine: easy and safe A resource manager that allows programs/users to share the hardware resources: fair and efficient A set of utilities to simplify application development

8 What is the role of the OS? Role #1: Provide standard Library (I.e., abstract resources) What is a resource? Anything valuable (e.g., CPU, memory, disk) Advantages of standard library Allow applications to reuse common facilities Make different devices look the same Provide higher-level abstractions Challenges What are the correct abstractions? How much of hardware should be exposed?

9 What is the role of the OS? Role #2: Resource manager Advantages of resource manager Virtualize resources so multiple users or applications can share Protect applications from one another Provide efficient and fair access to resources Challenges What are the correct mechanisms? What are the correct policies?

10 Mechanism and Policy Operating system: mechanism + policy Mechanisms: data structures and operations that implement an abstraction Policies: the procedures that guide the selection of a certain course of action from among alternatives Separate mechanisms from policies as much as possible

11 System Abstraction: Processes A process is a system (a running program) abstraction. Illusion of being the only job in the system Mechanism:  Creation, destruction, suspension, context switch, signaling, IPC,etc Policy: Minor policy questions: –Who can create/destroy/suspend processes? –How many active processes can each user have? Major policy question that we will concentrate on: –How to share system resources between multiple processes? –Typically broken into a number of orthogonal policies for individual resource such as CPU, memory, and disk.

12 Other Abstractions A thread is a processor abstraction Virtual memory is a memory abstraction A file system is a storage abstraction Message passing is a communication abstraction

13 History of the OS Two distinct phases of history Phase 1: Computers are expensive –Goal: Use computer’s time efficiently –Maximize throughput (I.e., jobs per second) –Maximize utilization (I.e., percentage busy) Phase 2: Computers are inexpensive –Goal: Use people’s time efficiently –Minimize response time

14 First commercial systems 1950s Hardware Enormous, expensive, and slow Input/Output: Punch cards and line printers Goal of OS Get the hardware working Single operator/programmer/user runs and debugs interactively OS Functionality Standard library only (no sharing or coordination of resources) Advantages Worked and allowed interactive debugging Problems Inefficient use of hardware (throughput and utilization)

15 Batch Processing Goal of OS: Better throughput and utilization Batch: Group of jobs submitted together Operator collects jobs; orders efficiently; runs one at a time Advantages Amortize setup costs over many jobs Operator more skilled at loading tapes Keep machine busy while programmer thinks Improves throughput and utilization Problems User must wait until batch is done for results Machine idle when job is reading from cards and writing to printers

16 Spooling CPUs were much faster than card readers and printers Disks were invented – disks were much faster than card readers and printers So, what do we do? Pipelining … what else? Read job 1 from cards to disk. Run job 1 while reading job 2 from cards to disk; save output of job 1 to disk. Print output of job 1 while running job 2 while reading job 3 from cards to disk. And so on … This is known as spooling: Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line Can use multiple card readers and printers to keep up with CPU if needed Improves both system throughput and response time

17 Multiprogrammed Batch Systems Observation: Spooling provides pool of ready jobs Goal of OS Improve performance by always running a job Keep multiple jobs resident in memory When job waits for disk I/O, OS switches to another job OS Functionality Job scheduling policies Memory management and protection Advantage: Improves throughput and utilization

18 Inexpensive Peripherals (Time-Sharing) 1960s Hardware Expensive mainframes, but inexpensive keyboards and monitors Enables text editors and interactive debuggers Goal of OS Improve user’s response time OS Functionality Time-sharing: switch between jobs to give appearance of dedicated machine More complex job scheduling Concurrency control and synchronization Advantage Users easily submit jobs and get immediate feedback

19 Inexpensive Personal Computers 1980s Hardware Entire machine is inexpensive One dedicated machine per user Goal of OS Give user control over machine OS Functionality Remove time-sharing of jobs, protection, and virtual memory Advantages Simplicity Works with little main memory Machine is all your own (performance is predictable) Disadvantages No time-sharing or protection between jobs

20 Inexpensive, Powerful Computers 1990s+ Hardware PCs with increasing computation and storage Users connected to the web Goal of OS Allow single user to run several applications simultaneously Provide security from malicious attacks Efficiently support web servers OS Functionality Add back time-sharing, protection, and virtual memory

21 Specific OS Systems Real-time OS Hard real-time system Soft real-time system Distributed OS Clusters Wide-area distributed systems Embedded OS Mobile devices Sensors Dedicated controllers

22 OS Components Kernel: Core components of the OS Process scheduler Determines when and for long each process executes Memory manager Determines when and how memory is allocated to processes Decides what to do when main memory is full File system Organizes named collections of data in persistent storage Networking Enables processes to communicate with one another

23 Why study Operating Systems? Build, modify, or administer an operating system Understand system performance Behavior of OS impacts entire machine Challenge to understand large, complex system Tune workload performance Apply knowledge across many areas –Computer architecture, programming languages, data structures and algorithms, and performance modeling

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