Presentation on theme: "GoWell Research & Learning Programme Presentation to SURF Board 14 th May 2009."— Presentation transcript:
GoWell Research & Learning Programme Presentation to SURF Board 14 th May 2009
GoWell is a collaborative partnership between the Glasgow Centre for Population Health, the University of Glasgow and the MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, sponsored by Glasgow Housing Association, the Scottish Government, NHS Health Scotland and NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde. Glasgow Community Health and Well-being Research and Learning Programme: Investigating the Processes and Impacts of Neighbourhood Change
Aims To investigate the health and wellbeing impacts of regeneration and housing investment. To understand the processes of change and implementation which contribute to (+ve and – ve) health and wellbeing impacts. To contribute to community awareness and understanding … and enable community members to take part in change. To share best practice and knowledge.
Research objectives To investigate how regeneration and housing investment affect individuals’ health and wellbeing To assess degree to which places are transformed To understand processes that support cohesive, sustainable communities To monitor the effects of interventions on area- based inequalities To develop and test research methods
Regeneration & Residential Change Residential & Cultural Capital Economic Capital Community & Neighbourhood Context Physical Health Mental Health & Wellbeing Social Health Fixed Capital Environmental Capital Social & Community Capital Human & Political Capital
Learning objectives To distil learning in a way that enables policy and implementation to take account of health and wellbeing To make opportunities to influence policy To facilitate communities and local structures to use learning in an empowering way To disseminate methodological developments and research findings
Timescale 1 st survey2 nd survey 3 rd survey4 th survey May 20062014 We are here May 2008 Focus groups Longitudinal studies (tracker & tracer) Empowerment and participation research Ecological monitoring of city-wide changes Nested studies: janitors; youth; play areas
Transformational Regen Local Regeneration Housing Improvement GoWell Study Areas Peripheral Estates Areas surrounding MSFs
Areas with >70% high-rise dwellings GoWell Study Areas Areas with >90% houses, low-rise flats and tenements Red Road MS flats and surrounding area Riddrie Carntyne Sighthill Townhead Drumchapel Shawbridge Scotstoun MS flats and surrounding area Gorbals Riverside St Andrew’s Drive Castlemilk Govan Birness Drive
Sample Sizes and Weighting Achieved samples of 6,000 in 2006 & 4,600 in 2008 Samples weighted in the same way for both Waves. To make samples representative of our study areas and sub- areas: –Weighting by gender, age group and housing tenure. –Using up-to-date information from NHS & Council Tax records. To adjust for different rates of interview success in different areas: –Scaling factors applied to samples by sub-area and study area to reflect their relative population sizes.
Housing Satisfaction Good progress is being made on housing satisfaction. Housing satisfaction has significantly improved in 3 of the IATs, with high numbers of people ‘very satisfied’. In Regeneration Areas the picture is mixed with increases in dissatisfaction as well as in satisfaction- as we might expect.
Homes & Services Satisfaction with housing services (such as repairs, dealing with neighbour issues, cleaning common areas, lighting etc) lags behind satisfaction with homes in all areas. The difference is greatest in Housing Improvement Areas, where satisfaction with homes is highest. As with homes, satisfaction with housing services is lowest in regeneration areas.
“How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your current home?” “How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with the overall housing service provided by your landlord?”
Psychosocial Benefits by Dwelling Type Houses perform best in providing all 8 psychosocial benefits to occupants, followed by other flats (tenement & deck access), and lastly high-rise flats. High-rise flats perform reasonably well on many items such as providing privacy, personal freedom and a sense of safety and retreat inside the home. High-rise flats do not perform well in providing feelings of relative status, personal progress, and a degree of ‘fit’ between the dwelling-type and the personality and values of the occupants.
Neighbourhood Environments Change in ratings of the environment seem to be associated with investment activity. Regeneration areas have seen significant declines in the quality of the environment. WSAs and HIAs have seen significant improvements in environmental quality. There has been little change in PEs where ratings are relatively low. All areas, apart from MTAs, have seen gains in the quiet and peacefulness of environments.
Antisocial Behaviour Problems We asked people about 11 antisocial behaviour issues at both Waves. Combining the responses to all these questions into an index* reveals that perceptions of ASB problems have worsened in all types of area. * (0 =no problems; 100 = all serious problems) ASB problems are greatest in regeneration areas. The biggest increase in problems was in PEs. There was little change in HIAs.
Based on 11 items, coded 0=not a problem, 1=slight problem, 2=serious problem.
Sense of Community Many more people feel they belong to an area than feel they are part of the community. This may detract from their enjoyment of where they live. Sense of community and enjoyment in the area are very low not only in regeneration areas but also in their surrounding areas. Belonging to the neighbourhood has fallen in MTAs (-13%), but remained stable elsewhere.
Community Cohesion: Safety Sense of safety has declined in all areas, with many more people deciding not to venture out alone after dark. A quarter (24%) of all respondents in 2008 said they never walk alone after dark. The biggest falls in sense of safety after dark were in regeneration areas. In MTAs half the respondents in 2008 said they felt ‘very unsafe’ or that they ‘never walk alone’. [This is in contrast to more people feeling safe in the home]
Cohesion: Harmony in Diversity Perceptions of harmony amongst diversity have improved in all areas, but especially in regeneration areas. In other areas there has been a reduction of up to two-thirds in the number of people who identify their areas as comprising people from ‘all the same backgrounds’ [In WSAs from 16% in 2006 to 5% in 2008; in HIAs from 17% to 6%; and in PEs down from 20% to 9%]
‘Generally agree’ that “This neighbourhood is a place where people from different backgrounds get on well together”.
Positive Mental Wellbeing: The WEMWBS Scale In 2008 we included the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale for the UK, developed with NHS Health Scotland. It consists of 14 items covering things such as confidence, optimism, happiness, clear thinking, closeness to others etc. It is closely correlated with other emotional and psychological scales. It is being used in the Scottish Health Survey and the Scottish Prison Survey so there are national benchmarks for us to compare with.
WEMWBS Scoring Respondents are asked to assess how they have been feeling over the past two weeks. People can say, for each item, that they have ‘never’ felt positive up to feeling positive ‘All of the time’. The items are combined into a score that ranges from 14 to 70. In 2006, the mean scores for the Scottish population were found to be 51.3 (or 66.6%) for men and 50.3 (64.8%) for women.
Includes 3,911 respondents in 15 study areas. Excluding asylum seekers and refugees. Mean scores are very similar to national norms. GoWell Wave 2 2008, WEMWBS Scores by Gender
More & Less Positive About What? Items with the most positive responses: –Deciding on things. –Feeling loved. –Thinking clearly. –Feeling good about oneself. –Feeling confident. = Feelings about self; thinking things through Items with the most negative responses: –Having energy to spare. –Feeling useful. –Feeling optimistic. –Being interested in others. = Being able to do things; the future; relations to others.
WEMWBS Mean Scores The same pattern by IAT is evident as with the Quality of Life scores. –HIAs score highest. –Regeneration areas score lowest. –PEs and WSAs score in the middle. We can also examine the scores by citizenship status, within regeneration areas: –The mean score for British citizens (49.32) is 4% lower than for non-citizens (51.26).
Mental Wellbeing & Sense of Progress through Neighbourhood Where you live is a barometer of how well you are doing in life. Feeling good about your area contributes to feeling good about yourself, and this may support mental wellbeing. This sense of progress through nhd improved in all types of area over time, apart from MTAs. Mental wellbeing scores appear to be associated with whether or not people think that ‘Living in this neighbourhood makes me feel that I’m doing well in life’: –The mean WEMWBS score ranges by 19% across the responses to this neighbourhood statement.
Mental Wellbeing & Neighbourhood Empowerment Feeling empowered locally appears to be associated with mental wellbeing. We asked people three questions about local empowerment: –Could they influence decisions affecting their local area, on their own or with others; –Were people in the area able to find ways to improve things in they want; –Were the council and local service providers responsive to people’s views. We created a local empowerment score from all three answers. This shows a positive relationship with mental wellbeing scores, with a range of 10 points or 18%.
Mental Wellbeing & Social Capital Local social capital is appears to be positively associated with mental wellbeing. Community interaction, and activities that make people feel they belong may therefore be important for mental wellbeing. We asked about people’s sense of belonging, feeling part of the community, and enjoyment of living in the area. We also asked about interactions with neighbours: knowing them; talking to them; visiting them; exchanging things with them. Both of these dimensions of social capital were associated with mental wellbeing.
Human Capital Being active is crucial to mental wellbeing. People living alone may need support. Younger adults have more positive mental health, with the divide being around age 30. Single adults (below or above retirement age) have lower mental wellbeing than people in other types of household. People who are occupied full time, either with a job or in further or higher education, have the highest mental wellbeing. People who are long-term sick or disabled and without a job have very low mental wellbeing.
Summary: Mental Wellbeing Our new questions on quality of life and on positive mental wellbeing display patterns across Intervention Area Types that are consistent with assessments of area quality. There are some interesting potential relationships between mental wellbeing and place-based psychological measures (e.g. sense of community, progress and empowerment). Being active in some way is very important.
Next Steps Produce a report on area change across the different levels of GoWell study sites. Investigate some issues in more depth, both in the area change report and in separate articles and briefing papers, e.g. the relationships between feeling empowered, being active and mental wellbeing. Arrange focus groups within some of the study areas for late summer this year, again to explore selected issues in more depth. Plan GoWell Wave 3.