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An introduction to the education system

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1 An introduction to the education system
in England

2 Key Facts Primary Secondary 8.3 million pupils 25,300 schools
% pupils eligible for free meals 16.9% 14% % ethnic minorities 19.3% 15.9% % first language other than English 11.6% 9% average class size 26.2 21.7

3 Phases Establishments Age Range Pre-School Nurseries Under 5
Primary Schools 5-11 Secondary Schools 11-16 or (19) Sixth Form Colleges 16-18 (19) Further Education Colleges Over 16 Special Schools 3-18

4 Phases and Testing Establishments Key Stage(s) Main Assessments
Primary Schools Foundation Stage 1 2 National Tests (11) Secondary Schools 3 4 GCSE (16) Sixth Form Colleges 5 AS A2 GCSE – General Certificate of Secondary Education AS – first year of Advanced Level course A2 – second/final year of Advanced Level

5 The Foundation Stage Curriculum
For children from birth to five years there are six areas of learning which all providers must address: Communication, language & Literacy Knowledge & Understanding of the World Physical Development Creative Development Personal, Social & Emotional Development Problem Solving, Reasoning & Numeracy 5

6 The Curriculum CORE SUBJECTS English Mathematics Science

7 The Curriculum Art Geography History Music Design and Technology
Information and Communications Technology Physical Education Religious Education Sex and Relationship Education Careers Education Citizenship Careers Education and Citizenship is not statutory until secondary school

8 Curriculum 3: Key Stage 4 Students aged 14-16
Compulsory subjects, e.g. Mathematics Entitlement subjects, e.g. Modern Foreign Language ‘Options’ – examples: Business Studies Media Studies Dance Drama Entitlement Subjects: these are subjects that must be available to students even if they themselves elect not to take them.

9 The English school landscape
One of the most devolved systems in the world Focuses on standards and well being Rigorous strands of accountability Workforce remodelling Collaboration and competition Importance of leadership The English school landscape is unusual in that it focuses on standards for pupils but also on wellbeing. There are rigorous strands of accountability. Every school is inspected under the OfSTED framework (Office for Standards in Education) and is required to produce a detailed report evaluating its own performance (SEF). Over the last ten years there have been substantial changes in terms of the workforce as schools have looked at “wrap around” care (8am – 6pm) as well as extended services from other disciplines (health and social services). This is also in the context of “workforce remodelling” – a reform which aimed to reduce teachers working hours and administrative burden and refocus them on their core role of teaching. Schools are expected to both collaborate (applying for joint funding, transfer procedures etc) whilst also being in competition with each other for pupils. This is as a result of school league tables which publish schools results in order to allow parents to make better informed choices about schooling. School leadership is given a high priority in the UK because of research showing that school leadership is second only to the quality of teaching in terms of successful school performance. However the UK is also suffering its largest ever recruitment crisis meaning that schools are having to look at creative options to fill headteacher vacancies (eg federations)

10 Key players Department for Education Schools and Governing Bodies
Local Authorities The structure of the school system in England and Wales is fairly complicated and involves three main players – the department for Children, Schools and Families, local authorities and the schools with their governing bodies. The Government holds local authorities accountable for standards in schools Local Authorities are responsible for quality of education locally and services for children and families. As such, they are legally responsible for the actions of schools in their areas and for enabling schools, social care and health services to work together in the interests of individual children. They are also responsible for ensuring children receive an education appropriate to their needs, managing the admission of children to schools Local authorities distribute government funding to schools and decide on the proportion of the budget different schools receive. The role of local authorities may change following the 2010 election. The government is encouraging more schools to apply for academy status which will take them out of local authority control. The role of the school is set out in the next few slides.

11 Different types of school
Community Schools funded through the Local Authorities Academies funded directly by the government Free Schools proposed by the government to be set up in response to parental request Private schools funded by private individuals organisations, or educational trusts See: 11

12 Freedom and control A head teacher and senior leaders have freedom to determine the ethos and practice of their schools … but also full responsibility for the quality of education experienced by the young people in their care.

13 Freedom and control Schools are responsible for: learning and teaching
appointment and management of all their staff the buildings and site including playing fields

14 Freedom and control A headteacher is accountable to a Governing Body that represents parents, the community and often the Local Authority There are national standards for headteachers New headteachers must be accredited by the National Professional Qualification for Headship

15 Every child matters be safe be healthy enjoy and achieve
make a positive contribution to society (citizenship) economic well-being The government has recently identified five key outcomes for all young people. These are listed above. The government recognizes that the outcomes can only be achieved by education, health and social services all working together. This is the Every Child Matters programme.

16 Each country of the UK has its own department for education
Scotland Wales Northern Ireland 16

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