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Chapter 12 - Unit 10 Forces and Motion

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I. Force A. Is a push or pull B. Can cause objects to change their velocity C. Forces are represented with vectors D. Forces are measured in Newtons (N)

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II. Friction Friction – a force that opposes motion Four Main Types of Friction 1. Static 2. Sliding 3. Rolling 4. Fluid

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A. Static Friction 1. Force that acts on Stationary objects 2. Prevents things from moving easily 3. Strongest friction force Friction Coefficient A close up of the roughness of the two surfaces. The force of gravity.

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B. Sliding Friction 1.Two solid surfaces slide over each other 2. Depends on weight and type of surface. The friction between the glass and the wood is considered sliding friction

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C. Rolling Friction 1. One object rolls over a solid surface 2. Produced by wheels or ball bearings Ball Bearings Rolling Friction

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D. Fluid Friction 1. When an object moves through a fluid. 2. The fluid opposes motion 3. Air resistance or water resistance The friction between the board and the water is considered fluid friction

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What forces are acting on this person?

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What forces are acting on the Storm Runner?

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What forces are acting on the wind surfer?

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III. Finding the Net Force A. Length of the vector shows the strength Stronger Force Weaker Force B. Forces that are going the same direction can be added + 10 N 5 N = 15 N

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C. Forces that are opposite are subtracted. 10 N + 5 N = D. Perpendicular forces do not affect each other.

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IV. Balanced Forces A. Forces which are opposite and equal B. Example: Net Force = Zero

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B. Example: 600 N 800 N Net Force = 200 N V. Unbalanced Forces A. Forces that cause acceleration

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VI. Gravity A. Force of attraction between 2 masses B. Causes an acceleration of 9.8 m/s/s. (On Earth) (On Earth) C. Mass does not affect the acceleration due to gravity.

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VII. Free Fall A. Air resistance affects all falling objects. B. When the air resistance equals the force of gravity, the object no longer accelerates. 1. This is the maximum speed an object can fall 2. We call this terminal velocity

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VIII. Projectile Motion A. An object moving through the air is a projectile B. Gravity pulls down C. It is moving forward due to inertia D. Follows curved path.

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IX. Newton’s Laws of Motion A.Newton’s First Law 1. An object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. 2. This is called inertia.

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B. Newton’s Second Law 1. An unbalanced force will accelerate an object in the direction of that force. 2. Force equals Mass times Acceleration F = ma 3. Applied to weight, the equation becomes: W = mg (Weight = mass X 9.8 m/s/s) 4. The unit used for force is called a Newton (N)

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C. Newton’s Third Law 1. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

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C. Newton’s Third Law 1. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. X. Momentum A.Momentum = mass X velocity B. The more mass an object has, the more momentum it will have. C. The faster an object moves, the more momentum it will have.

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D. Units: kg x m/sorkg-m/s E. Law of Conservation of Momentum 1. When a collision occurs, momentum is conserved 2. The loss of momentum from one object is gained by another object. 3. momentum before = momentum after 4. m 1 v 1 = m 2 v 2

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XI. Universal Forces A. Electromagnetic Forces 1. Only force that can retract and repel 2. Force between electrons and protons 3. Force between poles of a magnet B. Nuclear Forces 1. Strong force – holds the nuclear together 2. Weak force – attraction between all subatomic particles 3. Strongest universal force

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C. Gravitational Force 1. Attraction between two masses 2. Describes by Newton 3. Weakest Universal force 4. Can act over large distance

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