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**“How Well Am I Doing?” Financial Statement Analysis**

Chapter 17 “How Well Am I Doing?” Financial Statement Analysis

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**Limitations of Financial Statement Analysis**

Differences in accounting methods between companies sometimes make comparisons difficult. We use the LIFO method to value inventory. We use the FIFO method to value inventory.

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**Limitations of Financial Statement Analysis**

Changes within the firm Industry trends Consumer tastes Technological changes Economic factors Analysts should look beyond the ratios.

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**Statements in Comparative and Common-Size Form**

Dollar and percentage changes on statements Analytical techniques used to examine relationships among financial statement items Common-size statements Ratios

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**Dollar and Percentage Changes on Statements**

Comparing statements underscores movements and trends and may provide valuable clues about what to expect in the future. Horizontal analysis Trend analysis

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Horizontal Analysis Horizontal analysis shows the changes between years in the financial data in both dollar and percentage form.

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**Horizontal Analysis Example**

The following slides illustrate a horizontal analysis of Clover Corporation’s December 31, 2004 and 2003 comparative balance sheets and comparative income statements.

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Horizontal Analysis

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**Horizontal Analysis Calculating Change in Dollar Amounts Dollar Change**

Current Year Figure Base Year Figure = – The dollar amounts for 2003 become the “base” year figures.

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**Calculating Change as a Percentage**

Horizontal Analysis Calculating Change as a Percentage Percentage Change Dollar Change Base Year Figure × = 100%

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**Horizontal Analysis $12,000 – $23,500 = $(11,500)**

($11,500 ÷ $23,500) × 100% = 48.9%

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Horizontal Analysis

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Horizontal Analysis We could do this for the liabilities & stockholders’ equity, but now let’s look at the income statement accounts.

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Horizontal Analysis

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**Sales increased by 8.3% yet net income decreased by 21.9%.**

Horizontal Analysis Sales increased by 8.3% yet net income decreased by 21.9%.

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Horizontal Analysis There were increases in both cost of goods sold (14.3%) and operating expenses (2.1%). These increased costs more than offset the increase in sales, yielding an overall decrease in net income.

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Trend Percentages Trend percentages state several years’ financial data in terms of a base year, which equals 100 percent.

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**Trend Analysis × Trend Percentage Current Year Amount Base Year Amount**

100% = ×

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**Trend Analysis Example**

Look at the income information for Berry Products for the years 2000 through We will do a trend analysis on these amounts to see what we can learn about the company.

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**For the Years Ended December 31**

Trend Analysis Berry Products Income Information For the Years Ended December 31 The base year is 2000, and its amounts will equal 100%.

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**For the Years Ended December 31**

Trend Analysis Berry Products Income Information For the Years Ended December 31 2001 Amount ÷ 2000 Amount × 100% ( $290,000 ÷ $275,000 ) × 100% = 105% ( $198,000 ÷ $190,000 ) × 100% = 104% ( $ 92,000 ÷ $ 85,000 ) × 100% = 108%

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**For the Years Ended December 31**

Trend Analysis Berry Products Income Information For the Years Ended December 31 By analyzing the trends for Berry Products, we can see that cost of goods sold is increasing faster than sales, which is slowing the increase in gross margin.

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Trend Analysis We can use the trend percentages to construct a graph so we can see the trend over time.

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**Common-Size Statements**

Common-size statements use percentages to express the relationship of individual components to a total within a single period. This is also known as vertical analysis.

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**Common-Size Statements**

Example Let’s take another look at the information from the comparative income statements of Clover Corporation for 2004 and 2003. This time let’s prepare common-size statements.

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**Common-Size Statements**

Net sales is usually the base and is expressed as 100%.

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**Common-Size Statements**

2004 Cost ÷ 2004 Sales × 100% ( $360,000 ÷ $520,000 ) × 100% = 69.2% 2003 Cost ÷ 2003 Sales × 100% ( $315,000 ÷ $480,000 ) × 100% = 65.6%

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**Gross Margin Percentage**

Sales = This measure indicates how much of each sales dollar is left after deducting the cost of goods sold to cover expenses and a profit.

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**Common-Size Statements**

What conclusions can we draw?

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Quick Check Which of the following statements describes horizontal analysis? a. A statement that shows items appearing on it in percentage and dollar form. b. A side-by-side comparison of two or more years’ financial statements. c. A comparison of the account balances on the current year’s financial statements. d. None of the above.

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Quick Check Which of the following statements describes horizontal analysis? a. A statement that shows items appearing on it in percentage and dollar form. b. A side-by-side comparison of two or more years’ financial statements. c. A comparison of the account balances on the current year’s financial statements. d. None of the above. Horizontal analysis shows the changes between years in the financial data in both dollar and percentage form.

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**Now, let’s look at Norton Corporation’s 2004 and 2003 financial statements.**

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**Now, let’s calculate some ratios based on Norton Corporation’s financial statements.**

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**Ratio Analysis – The Common Stockholder**

Use this information to calculate ratios to measure the well-being of the common stockholders of Norton Corporation.

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**Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding**

Earnings Per Share Earnings per Share Net Income – Preferred Dividends Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding = Whenever a ratio divides an income statement balance by a balance sheet balance, the average for the year is used in the denominator.

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**Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding**

Earnings Per Share Earnings per Share Net Income – Preferred Dividends Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding = Earnings per Share $53,690 – 0 (17, ,400)/2 = = $2.42 This measure indicates how much income was earned for each share of common stock outstanding.

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**Price-Earnings Ratio Price-Earnings Ratio Market Price Per Share**

Earnings Per Share = Price-Earnings Ratio $20.00 $2.42 = = 8.26 times This measure is often used by investors as a general guideline in gauging stock values. Generally, the higher the price-earnings ratio, the more opportunity a company has for growth.

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**Dividend Payout Ratio Dividend Payout Ratio Dividends Per Share**

Earnings Per Share = Dividend Payout Ratio $2.00 $2.42 = = 82.6% This ratio gauges the portion of current earnings being paid out in dividends. Investors seeking current income would like this ratio to be large.

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**Dividend Yield Ratio Dividend Yield Ratio Dividends Per Share**

Market Price Per Share = Dividend Yield Ratio $2.00 $20.00 = = 10.00% This ratio identifies the return, in terms of cash dividends, on the current market price of the stock.

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**Net Income + [Interest Expense × (1 – Tax Rate)]**

Return on Total Assets Return on Total Assets Net Income + [Interest Expense × (1 – Tax Rate)] Average Total Assets = Return on Total Assets $53,690 +[7,300 × (1 – .30)] ($300,000 + $346,390) ÷ 2 = = % This ratio measures how well assets have been employed.

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**Return on Common Stockholders’ Equity**

Net Income – Preferred Dividends Average Stockholders’ Equity = Return on Common Stockholders’ Equity $53,690 – 0 ($180,000 + $234,390) ÷ 2 = = 25.91% This measure indicates how well the company employed the owners’ investments to earn income.

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Financial Leverage Financial leverage involves acquiring assets with funds at a fixed rate of interest. Return on investment in assets > Fixed rate of return on borrowed funds Positive financial leverage = Return on investment in assets < Fixed rate of return on borrowed funds Negative financial leverage =

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**Quick Check Which of the following statements is true?**

a. Negative financial leverage is when the fixed return to a company’s creditors and preferred stockholders is greater than the return on total assets. b. Positive financial leverage is when the fixed return to a company’s creditors and preferred stockholders is greater than the return on total assets. c. Financial leverage is the expression of several years’ financial data in percentage form in terms of a base year.

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**Quick Check Which of the following statements is true?**

a. Negative financial leverage is when the fixed return to a company’s creditors and preferred stockholders is greater than the return on total assets. b. Positive financial leverage is when the fixed return to a company’s creditors and preferred stockholders is greater than the return on total assets. c. Financial leverage is the expression of several years’ financial data in percentage form in terms of a base year.

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Impact of Income Taxes Debt is more efficient in generating positive financial leverage than preferred stock.

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**Common Stockholders’ Equity Number of Common Shares Outstanding**

Book Value Per Share Book Value per Share Common Stockholders’ Equity Number of Common Shares Outstanding = = $ 8.55 Book Value per Share $234,390 27,400 = This ratio measures the amount that would be distributed to holders of each share of common stock if all assets were sold at their balance sheet carrying amounts and if all creditors were paid off.

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**Ratio Analysis – The Short– Term Creditor**

Use this information to calculate ratios to measure the well-being of the short-term creditors for Norton Corporation.

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Working Capital

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**Current Ratio Current Ratio Current Assets Current Liabilities =**

$65,000 $42,000 = 1.55 : 1 This ratio measures the ability of the company to pay current debts as they become due.

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**Acid-Test (Quick) Ratio**

Quick Assets Current Liabilities = Acid-Test Ratio Quick assets are Cash, Marketable Securities, Accounts Receivable and current Notes Receivable. Norton Corporation’s quick assets consist of cash of $30,000 and accounts receivable of $20,000.

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**Acid-Test (Quick) Ratio**

Quick Assets Current Liabilities = Acid-Test Ratio $50,000 $42,000 = 1.19 : 1 Acid-Test Ratio This ratio is like the current ratio but excludes current assets such as inventories that may be difficult to quickly convert into cash.

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**Accounts Receivable Turnover**

Sales on Account Average Accounts Receivable Accounts Receivable Turnover = = times $500,000 ($17,000 + $20,000) ÷ 2 Accounts Receivable Turnover = This ratio measures how many times a company converts its receivables into cash each year.

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**Average Collection Period**

= 365 Days Accounts Receivable Turnover = days Average Collection Period = 365 Days 27.03 Times This ratio measures, on average, how many days it takes to collect an account receivable.

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**Inventory Turnover Cost of Goods Sold Average Inventory Inventory**

= = times $140,000 ($10,000 + $12,000) ÷ 2 Inventory Turnover = This ratio measures the number of times merchandise inventory is sold and replaced during the year.

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**Average Sale Period Average Sale Period = 365 Days Inventory Turnover**

12.73 Times This ratio measures how many days, on average, it takes to sell the inventory.

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**Ratio Analysis – The Long– Term Creditor**

Use this information to calculate ratios to measure the well-being of the long-term creditors for Norton Corporation. This is also referred to as net operating income.

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**Times Interest Earned Ratio**

Earnings before Interest Expense and Income Taxes Interest Expense Times Interest Earned = Times Interest Earned $84,000 7,300 = 11.5 times This is the most common measure of the ability of a firm’s operations to provide protection to the long-term creditor.

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**Debt-to-Equity Ratio Total Liabilities Stockholders’ Equity Debt–to–**

= $112,000 $234,390 Debt–to– Equity Ratio = = to 1 This ratio measures the amount of assets being provided by creditors for each dollar of assets being provided by the owners of the company.

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End of Chapter 17

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