Human Rights Definition (how to operationalize) Concepts Principles (Universality, Inalienable, Indivisibility, interdependence etc) Legal framework Key tools: Declarations, Covenants, Needs based versus rights based approaches A need may not be aright ; a right is a need Distinction and responsibilities of Rights holders and duty bearers – The state has overall responsibility of its people Patterns of obligations Obligations-claims patterns at various levels (Child, family society, international community)
Steps in human rights focus 1 st identify the gaps in rights realization 2 nd support rights holders to articulate their claims 3 rd define responsibilities 4 th analyze and address capacities of duty bearers at all levels
Importance of context HRBA – context based – Culture – Religion – Traditional beliefs and practices – You can not change this if you do not use participatory approaches
Implications of HRBA in Programming Improve relevance through upstream focused approaches (exception: humanitarian crisis) In all circumstances, use empowerment/ capacity building approaches Focus on most vulnerable and deprived populations Lay equal emphasis on process and results Empowerment of rights holders to claim rights and duty bearers to fulfill obligations
Discussion Uganda has done well on the upstream in terms of getting policies to respond to HRBA issues – The challenge is at the downstream – implementation – we need to strike the right balance between upstream and downstream – Learnt that we can have upstream at both national and local levels Important to focus on cultural, religious and traditional beliefs : – but what about the economy
Discussion How can the UN help strengthen the right holders to demand and strengthening the duty bearers? How do you get the rights holders to demand and the duty bearers to play their roles given the power imbalance – the rights holders are normally powerless? We need a very thorough situational analysis on HR. Where is the most violation and which populations? Empowerment of the rights holders and duty bearers – how do we involve the vulnerable in this planning process?
Results Chain Strategic intent at the outcome level Short term operational results – Input – activities - Outputs Operational achievements Medium term institutional and behavioral results (OUTCOMES) (always positive) Long term expected changes on people and society’s conditions (IMPACT) – looks at both positives and negatives Cause and effect relationship – The if-then logic – Control and accountability
Formulation of results statement Formulate using key words Elements of change – Subject of change – what needs to change – Dimension of the change – which element of the change needs to change – Qualifier of the change – which direction should the change take Accountability – control of results – as we move to higher levels of results the control reduces
DISCUSSION Difference between the intermediate outcome and outcome How do we use this results logic in the NDP II planning? The concept of priority areas is not based on priorities but is issue focused Assessing NDP II proposals to ensure that forward and backward linkages are addressed.
Discussion A stepwise approach – HRBA for the UN means working at upstream, or with upstream mindset all the time Upstream – capacity development – Evidence, advocacy, policy dialogue support, systems strengthening, innovation, aid coordination support, procurement of services Down stream is service delivery – Equipment infrastructure, supply and direct care
Outcome Mapping Principles Enablers are key, linking outputs to outcomes and impact – Good governance – Social capital (higher that human capital – Economic growth – Response to challenges
Discussion To whom the concept of HBRA apply? – To all the states that signed the conventions Progressive realization has to do more with social and cultural rights? – Has to take into account the context How best can we get a shared appreciation of the HRBA? – Formulating priorities should be aligned to NDP II outcomes To what extent was the situational analysis of NDP II driven by HRBA to guide the UNDAF process? The transformational approach is a stepwise approach – time is critical UNDAF is a government plan – implemented with the support of the UN NDP II needs a clear theory of change and Clear timelines The HRBA approach is welcome
TIPS ON HOW TO FORMULATE A Transformative Result Change language – Used to focus on societal transformation rather than on partner’s actions, using outcome mapping (OM) techniques in results formulation – Describes changes in contextual factors leading to sustainable changes in the conditions of people – Sets precise criteria for success – what must change and in what direction – Focuses on changes leaving options on how to achieve them
Discussion We should focus on underlying causes of Gender and human rights issues Situation analysis has to see whether the human rights of Ugandans are being met incrementally. – If they are not being met, what is the problem – Analytical methods should be compliant with HR, EnvS, and GE Human rights is about protection and promotion – the constitutional requirement The process is as important as the outcome