Presentation on theme: "7.1 Chromosomes and Phenotype"— Presentation transcript:
1 7.1 Chromosomes and Phenotype Two copies of each autosomal gene affect phenotype (physical).Mendel studied autosomal gene traits, like hair texture.Autosome – chromosome with genes not related to sex of organism (body cells)
2 7.1 Chromosomes and Phenotype Carrier – has an allele for a trait or disease that is not expressed.Carrier does not have disease symptoms but can pass it on to offspring.(dominant)Dominant allele disorders are rare.Huntington’s disease is an example of a disease caused by a dominant allele.
3 7.1 Chromosomes and Phenotype Genes on sex chromosomes are called sex-linked genes.Y chromosome - male characteristics .X chromosome - genes affects many traits..Males can pass on X or YFemales only pass on X
4 7.1 Chromosomes and Phenotype Who determines the sex of the offspring?Father – he can provide an X or Y chromosomeEggXXXXXXXXYXXXXBody CellXXYYYSpermBody Cell1female:1male
5 7.1 Chromosomes and Phenotype Males have an XY genotype.All of a male’s sex-linked genes are expressed.Males have no second copies of sex-linked genesY chromosome is much smaller
6 7.1 Chromosomes and Phenotype Females have an XX genotype.X chromosome inactivation -randomly “turns off” one X chromosome.Why are males more likely than females to have genetic disorders?All sex-linked genes are expressed, even recessive. Females have a backup X chromosome.
7 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Color blindness is a problem in which red or green look like shades of gray or other colors.The gene is carried on the X chromosome and is a recessive trait.XCXcXCXCXCXcXCYXcYXCXCXC = normal femaleXCXc = female, normal vision (carrier)XCY = normal vision maleXcY = color blind maleY
8 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Some traits are neither totally dominant nor totally recessive.Incomplete dominance - when neither gene is totally dominant to the other- Heterozygous phenotype is intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypesExample: White flowers and red flowers produce pink flowers
9 Codominance RR RR’ R’R’ R = Round blood cells R’ = Sickle Cells Sickle Cell AnemiaR = Round blood cellsR’ = Sickle CellsDisease in which the body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells. Sickle-shaped cells don’t move easily through your blood vessels. They’re stiff and sticky and tend to form clumps and get stuck in the blood vessels.RR’RRRR’R’R’RRR = normal bloodRR’ = some sickle cells, some normal cellsR’R’ = has sickle cell anemiaR’
10 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Codominant - alleles will both be completely expressed.Example – red and white flower produce a flower with BOTH colorsCodominant alleles are neither dominant nor recessive.The ABO blood types result from codominant alleles.Many genes have more than two alleles.
11 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Polygenic traits are produced by two or more genes.Order of dominance: brown > green > blue.
12 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Epistatic gene - can interfere with the expression of all other genes.Mice have 5 genes that control fur color.2 genes for general color1 for shading1 for spots1 epistatic gene for color that overrules all other genes
13 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Phenotype is a combination of genotype and environment.The sex of sea turtles depends on both genes and the environment. Warm eggs develop into femalesHeight is an example of a phenotype strongly affected by the environmental factors such as early nutrition and health care.
14 Gene Linkage and Mapping Gene linkage was explained through fruit flies.Morgan found that linked traits are on the same chromosome. Traits can be inherited as a group.Chromosomes, not genes, assort independently during meiosis.Wild typeMutant
15 Gene Linkage and Mapping Linked genes are not inherited together every time.Chromosomes exchange homologous genes during meiosis.
16 Gene Linkage and Mapping Linkage maps – map of location of genes on a chromosome.The closer together two genes are, the more likely they will be inherited together.Cross-over frequencies are related to distances between genes.
17 Gene Linkage and Mapping Cross-over frequencies can be converted into map units.gene A and gene B cross over 6.0 percent of the timegene B and gene C cross over 12.5 percent of the timegene A and gene C cross over 18.5 percent of the time
18 Human Genetics and Pedigrees Human genetics follows the patterns seen in other organisms.The basic principles of genetics are the same in all sexually reproducing organisms.Inheritance of many human traits is complex.Single-gene traits are important in understanding human genetics.
19 Gene Linkage and Mapping Females can carry sex-linked genetic disorders.Males (XY) express all of their sex linked genes.Expression of the disorder depends on which parent carries the allele and the sex of the child.X chromosome carries about 1100 genes while the Y carries about 250
20 Gene Linkage and Mapping Pedigree - chart for tracing genes in a family.Phenotypes are used to infer genotypes on a pedigree.Autosomal genes show different patterns on a pedigree than sex-linked genes.Widow’s peak: W = widow’s peak w = non widow’s peak
21 Gene Linkage and Mapping If the phenotype is more common in males, the gene is likely sex-linked.Colorblindness: M = normal vision m = colorblindness
22 Gene Linkage and Mapping Several methods help map human chromosomes.Karyotype - a picture of all chromosomes in a cell.X Y
23 Gene Linkage and Mapping Karyotypes can show changes in chromosomes.deletion of part of a chromosome or loss of a chromosomelarge changes in chromosomesextra chromosomes or duplication of part of a chromosome