2 Types of Dairy 1.Fresh 2.Concentrated 3.Frozen 4.Cultured
3 Types of Dairy Products Fresh Milk and Cheese milk- 4 types half & half cream cottage cheese, Has the shortest shelf life cream cheese farmers cheese, Makes a white cheese sauce
4 Concentrated (Removal of water) 1.Whipping cream, sweetened whipped cream – gradually add sugar after the whipped cream is thick. 2.evaporated milk, Part of the water is removed 3.sweetened condensed milk, is similar to evaporated milk but has added sugar. 4.fat-free dry milk solids, can be mixed with water and used as you would fresh milk. High in nutrients.
5 Frozen 1.Ice Cream-contains the least amount of calcium per cup. 2.Sherbets – the main ingredients are fruit juice, milk and sugar 3.frozen yogurt- active yogurt cultures, nonfat solids, sugar, and flavorings
6 Cheeses –Cheeses -1 oz. cheese=1C milk Processed cheese –such as Velveeta or American makes the smoothest cheese sauce. Parmesan cheese – most expensive/pound Overcooked cheese is tough and rubbery Unripe cheese – sometimes called fresh cheeses, are not aged (ricotta, cottage cheese and mozzarella) Ripened cheeses – aged cheese (Muenster, Cheddar, Gouda, Colby and Parmesan) To help cheese keep its texture and flavor, cook at low temperatures for a short time. High heat and long cooking make cheese tough and rubbery and may cause the fat in cheese to separate.
7 1.Yogurt A low fat substitute for sour cream and mayonnaise Has the lowest fat and highest calcium content Has “friendly” bacteria 2.sour cream A cultured milk product 3.Buttermilk Made with skim milk Examples of Cultured Products
8 Scorching – When milk solids fall to the bottom of the pan. To avoid scorching milk based foods, use a double boiler, low heat and stir continually Curdling/Coagulation – -Occurs when a liquid changes into a soft semisolid or solid mass -Occurs when milk is heated. Caused by the action of acids, enzymes, and salts. The protein in the milk causes it to curdle. Stir constantly while cooking milk to avoid curdling. Preparation Principles
9 Skin or scum – Main ingredient in a skin is protein solids. Simmering hot cocoa in an uncovered container will cause a skin to form on top of the hot cocoa if you don’t stir it. Microwaving- The fat attracts the microwaves. When microwaving it is best to reduce the power, overcooking will cause the product to be rubbery. Cook milk products in a larger container to prevent it from bubbling over.
10 Nutritional Contribution What does each of these nutrients can do for our body 1.Calcium 2.Fat 3.Cholesterol 4.Riboflavin 5.Vitamin A 6.Vitamin D
11 Nutritional Contribution of Dairy Products Calcium – Everyone needs=1300-1500 mg/day –Dairy products have high amounts Fat –Contains saturated fat –Skim milk has only a trace of fat –Whole milk is high in fat Cholesterol –Is reduced when you use skim or low fat milk
12 Nutritional Contribution of Dairy Products Continued Riboflavin (B2) –is killed by light –Dairy products have high amounts –Needed for muscle coordination and healthy nervous system Vitamin A –Dairy products have high amounts –antioxidant Vitamin D –Dairy products have high amounts, only when fortified –Needed to absorb calcium Lactose –Natural sugar found in milk
13 FYI-Lactose Intolerance Means the body does not produce enough lactase (enzyme needed to digest lactose). Lactose is a naturally occurring sugar found in milk. Symptoms: gas, cramps, bloating, and diarrhea after drinking or eating milk products Acidophilus – milk product developed for people that are lactose intolerant. Contains added bacterial culture
14 Storage and Temperature –Needs to be stored at 41° or below to prevent spoilage. Milk is highly perishable. –Light destroys Riboflavin
15 Milk Processing Pasteurization – milk is heated to destroy harmful bacteria UHT Processing – milk is heated to a higher temperature than regular pasteurized milk to further increase shelf life. After processing milk is sealed in pre-sterilized containers. It has the same flavor. Store unopened UHT milk products for up to 6 months without refrigeration.
16 Milk Processing (con’t) Homogenization – mechanical process that prevents cream from rising to the surface of milk. Richer texture and flavor. Fortified – nutrients have been added in amounts greater than would naturally occur. Most dairy products have been fortified with Vitamin D.
17 General Information Milk contains vitamin called riboflavin. Light can destroy riboflavin in milk. Butter is one of the few dairy products to be graded. Skim milk contains the least amount of calories per cup. Dairy products should be used within one week of the fresh sale date.