Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Plan Ch 9 Prakesh (Blackgold). Chapter Nine Effective Groups and Teamwork.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Plan Ch 9 Prakesh (Blackgold). Chapter Nine Effective Groups and Teamwork."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plan Ch 9 Prakesh (Blackgold)

2 Chapter Nine Effective Groups and Teamwork

3 Fundamentals of Group Behavior Formal and Informal Groups Functions of Formal Groups The Group Development Process Group Member Roles Norms Teams, Trust, and Teamwork A Team is More Than Just a Group Trust: A Key Ingredient in Teamwork Self-Managed Teams Virtual Teams Chapter Nine Outline

4 Threats to Group and Team Effectiveness Groupthink Social Loafing Chapter Nine Outline (continued)

5 Organizational Functions Individual Functions 1. Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals. 2. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions. 3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts. 4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments. 5. Implement complex decisions. 6. Socialize and train newcomers. 1. Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation. 2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity. 3. Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality. 4. Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerless- ness. 5. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems. Functions of Formal Groups

6 Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Forming Return to Independence Dependence/ interdependence Independence Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development

7 Individual Issues FormingStormingNormingPerforming “How do I fit in?” “What’s my role here?” “What do the others expect me to do?” “How can I best perform my role?” Group Issues “Why are we here?” “Why are we fighting over who’s in charge and who does what?” “Can we agree on roles and work as a team?” “Can we do the job properly?” Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development (continued)

8 Task RolesDescription Initiator InitiatorSuggests new goals or ideas Information seeker/giver Information seeker/giverClarifies key issues Opinion seeker/giver Opinion seeker/giverClarifies pertinent issues Elaborator Elaborator Promote greater understanding Coordinator CoordinatorPulls together key ideas and suggestions Orienter Orienter Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Evaluator Evaluator Tests group’s accomplishments Energizer Energizer Prods group to move along or to accomplish more Procedural Technician Procedural Technician Performs routine duties Recorder Recorder Performs a “group memory” function Task and Maintenance Roles

9 Maintenance Roles Description Encourager EncouragerFosters group solidarity Harmonizer HarmonizerMediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromiser Compromiser Helps resolve conflict by meeting others”half way” Gate Keeper Gate Keeper Encourages all group members to participate Standard setter Standard setter Evaluates the quality of group processes Commentator CommentatorRecords comments on group processes/dynamics Follower FollowerServes as a passive audience Task and Maintenance Roles (cont)

10 Norm: Norm: “An attitude, opinion, feeling, or action -- shared by two or more people -- that guides their behavior.” Why Norms Are Enforced Help the group or organization survive Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity Social Norms

11 The Evolution of a Team A work group becomes a team when: Leadership Leadership becomes a shared activity. Accountability Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collective. purpose The group develops its own purpose or mission. Problem solving Problem solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity. Effectiveness Effectiveness is measured by the group’s collective outcomes and products. Team: Team: “A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.” Teams

12 Teams Teamwork competencies  Role model teamwork skills – group problem solving, mentoring, conflict management skills Dimensions of Trust  Overall  Emotional  Reliableness

13 How to Build Trust Communication Communication (keep everyone informed; give feedback; tell the truth). Support Support (be available and approachable). Respect Respect (delegate; be an active listener). Fairness Fairness (give credit where due; objectively evaluate performance). Predictability Predictability (be consistent; keep your promises). Competence Competence (demonstrate good business sense and professionalism). Trust: Trust: “Reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behavior.” Trust

14 Self-managed Teams Groups of workers given administrative oversight for their task domains (see survey) Roles taken on by “team advisors”  Relating, e.g. team relative power structure  Scouting, e.g. facilitating group problems solving  Persuading, e.g. gathering outside support, facilitating team to be more effective  Empowering, e.g. coaching

15 Percentage of Companies Saying Their Self-Managing Teams Perform These Traditional Management Functions by Themselves. Schedule work assignments67% Work with outside customers67 Conduct training59 Set production goals/quotas56 Work with suppliers/vendors44 Purchase equipment/services43 Develop budgets39 Do performance appraisals36 Hire co-workers 33 Fire co-workers 14 Source: Adapted from “1996 industry Report: What Self-Managing Teams Manage,” Training, October 1996, p. 69 Survey Evidence: What Self- Managing Teams Manage

16 Self-managed team – other issues Managerial resistance Evidence of effectiveness – productivity, positive effect on attitudes, etc.

17 Different Types of Teams Cross-functional teams  Grew out of TQM movement – improve process  Different specialization that have an ownership of a process or issue being tackled Virtual teams  Physically dispersed task group...  Occur by default due to technology and organization response, e.g. outsourcing

18 Invulnerability Invulnerability Inherent morality Inherent morality Rationalization Rationalization Stereotyped views of opposition Stereotyped views of opposition Self-censorship Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Illusion of unanimity Peer pressure Peer pressure Mindguards Mindguards Symptoms of Groupthink

19  Every group member a critical evaluator  Avoid rubber-stamp decisions  Different groups explore same problems  Rely on subgroup debates and outside experts  Assign role of devil’s advocate  Rethink a consensus Skills and Best Practices: How to Prevent Group Think

20 Social Loafing Tendency for individual effort to decline as a group size increases Reasons:  Equity effort – perception that every one else is goofing off  Loss of personal accountability  Motivational loss due to sharing of rewards – expectancy theory  Loss of coordination

Download ppt "Plan Ch 9 Prakesh (Blackgold). Chapter Nine Effective Groups and Teamwork."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google