Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 How to Observe Children"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4 How to Observe Children 4/15/2017Chapter 4 How to Observe Children
2 4/15/2017What Is Observation?Clues to the development and personality of each childTo “read” the childTo “see” a situationTo develop a child senseImportant role in assessment
3 Why Observe? Improve your teaching Construct theory 4/15/2017Why Observe?Improve your teachingBecome more objective and less biased, and use less inferenceConstruct theoryLink research to practiceUse as an assessment toolDevelop specific goals and objectives for planning and developmentAssist familiesShare meaningful examples of abilities
4 Why Observe? (cont.) Wonder why and solve a problem 4/15/2017Why Observe? (cont.)Wonder why and solve a problemA time of reflectionsDeveloping hunches and intuitionRethinking the problem
6 Contexts for Understanding Observations 4/15/2017Contexts for Understanding ObservationsChildren as individualsTailoring what a child is ready and willing to learnReport what a child does (not feels) and interpretationsChildren in generalLook at developmental normsChildren’s play patterns evolveUnderstanding group and individual behavior
7 Influences on Behavior 4/15/2017Influences on BehaviorEnvironmental influences are classroom arrangement, daily schedule, and the activities themselvesTransitions and time of day impact behaviorRelationships between children and adults
8 Understanding Self Notice human behavior more accurately 4/15/2017Understanding SelfNotice human behavior more accuratelyOne teaches children and learns from themCapturing the unique personality, culture, and qualities develops self-awareness
9 Key Elements of Observation 4/15/2017Key Elements of ObservationSystematic observations aid in recording events and help teachers make sense of themMust develop a “language of recording” to practiceElements of observationFocus on what you want to knowDevelop a systemFind a tool or instrumentSelect the environment
10 Types of Observation Narratives Record nearly everything that happens 4/15/2017Types of ObservationNarrativesRecord nearly everything that happensBaby biography, diary, journal, or logModified running record or specimen description (one thing at a time)Advantages:rich information, detailed behavioral accounts, take notes at any timeDisadvantages:time consuming, tendency for judgment or inference
11 Observation Strategies— Anecdotal Record 4/15/2017Observation Strategies— Anecdotal RecordDetailed record of specific episode of particular interest or concernA short descriptive story about a child’s specific behavior event that is of particular interest or concern.This may be firsthand information as observed by child care providers or recorded from secondhand information as provided by parents.It is qualitative, not quantitative data.Anecdotal record: short story describing a significant incidentA short descriptive story about a child’s specific behavior event that is of particular interest or concern. This may be firsthand information as observed by child care providers or recorded from secondhand information as provided by parents. It is qualitative, not quantitative data.
12 Observation Strategies— Running Account 4/15/2017Observation Strategies— Running AccountSpecific type of behavior noted each time it occurs to provide ongoing description of behavior
13 Samplings Time sampling Event sampling What happens at a given time 4/15/2017SamplingsTime samplingWhat happens at a given timeLess descriptiveRecorded at regular intervalsCan use a checklistAdvantage: focus on specific behaviorsDisadvantage: difficult to get the whole pictureEvent samplingDefines an event and devises a system to encode immediatelyLooks at specific behaviors using checklists a number of times during a dayAdvantage: clearly defined with a recording sheetDisadvantage: lack of detail from a narrative
14 Observation Strategies— Time Sampling 4/15/2017Observation Strategies— Time SamplingIdentifies behaviorsDetermines patterns of occurrence and general frequency of behaviorsA recording made at predefined intervals to determine the pattern of occurrence and the general frequency of a certain behavior either in an individual or in the entire group. Setting and sticking with specific time intervals for recording the behavior reduces the influence of observer bias.
15 Observation Strategies— Event Sampling 4/15/2017Observation Strategies— Event SamplingDetermines pattern of occurrence and precise number of times predetermined behavior occurs within set period of timeA recording to determine the precise number of times a specific behavior occurs within a set period, as well as the pattern of occurrence.
16 4/15/2017Rating MethodsChecklists with predetermined data are simple to make and record but lack rich detailRating scales are checklists planned in advance that measure quantity and quality
17 How to Observe and Record Effectively 4/15/2017How to Observe and Record EffectivelyObserving while teachingGather and prepare materialsConsider where you will observePlan when it will take place, and arrange help if neededPrepare every adult to be an observer and reflect on children’s play
18 How to Observe and Record Effectively (cont.) 4/15/2017How to Observe and Record Effectively (cont.)Beginning to observePlan and establish a time and placeBe unobtrusiveObserve and recordInterpret your dataAct on what you observed
19 Observation Sequence Determining learning and developmental goals 4/15/2017Observation SequenceDetermining learning and developmental goalsWatching and recording behaviorInferring meaning from behaviorEvaluating progress toward learning and developmental goalsPlanning changes to enable achievement of desired goals
20 ObservationQualitative information- Unmeasurable descriptive qualities and characteristics of behaviors.Quantitative information- Measurable numerical data and statistical calculations that tell how often or to what degree behaviors occur
22 4/15/2017Inferring MeaningAct of drawing conclusions from evidence perceived by one’s senses or through communicationDrawing conclusions from evidence perceived by one’s senses or through communication.
23 4/15/2017BiasesBiases are one’s own set of beliefs, values, perceptions, and assumptionsBiases develop from one’s upbringing, past experience, and personal philosophy of lifeAll we perceive with our senses is filtered through layers of our personal point of view (bias)
24 4/15/2017PerceiveBecome aware of subtle impressions about the physical world by focusing on the senses to notice and understandMake the effort to separate facts from opinions to increase objectivityWe see children differently because we are different