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Introduction to CITES.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to CITES."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to CITES

2 Introduction CITES is the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. CITES aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants do not threaten their survival.

3 Unit Objectives Explain the scope and purpose of CITES
Know the composition of the 3 CITES Appendices Illustrate how CITES regulates trade Discuss the role of Customs and border control in implementing CITES

4 Unit Outline Introduction Scope and Intention of CITES
THE 3 CITES Appendices Regulating Trade under CITES Role of Customs & Border Control Conclusion

5 CITES has been in operation for over 35 years
How CITES works CITES is the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES was signed on 3 March 1973, and entered into force on 1 July 1975 CITES has been in operation for over 35 years

6 Status of Ratification in the Caribbean
All CARIFORUM States are listed as parties to CITES except for Haiti.* *Refer to Caribbean MEAs Ratification Status fact sheet.

7 How CITES works CITES is an international convention that combines wildlife and trade themes with a legally binding instrument for achieving conservation and sustainable use objectives

8 How CITES works The purpose of CITES is to ensure that wild fauna and flora in international trade are not exploited unsustainably

9 How CITES works The Convention establishes an international legal framework together with common procedural mechanisms for the prevention of international commercial trade in endangered species, and for an effective regulation of international trade in others

10 How CITES works This framework and common procedural mechanism is now used by 175 countries to regulate and monitor international trade in wild resources

11 How CITES works Species subject to CITES regulation are divided amongst three Appendices I II III

12 How CITES works Appendix I Species threatened with extinction
International (commercial) trade is generally prohibited Almost 530 animal species and some 300 plant species

13 How CITES works Appendix II
Species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but for which trade must be controlled to avoid their becoming threatened Species that resemble species already included in Appendix I or II International trade is permitted but regulated More than 4,400 animal species and more than 28,000 plant species

14 How CITES works Appendix III
Species for which a country is asking Parties to help with its protection International trade is permitted but regulated (less restrictive than Appendix II) Some 255 animal species and 7 plant species

15 Trade - fauna Primates Hunting trophies Birds of prey
Parrots & parakeets Crocodilians Snakes & lizards Turtles & tortoises Live aquarium specimens Food fishes Spiders & butterflies Molluscs & corals

16 Fauna - Caribbean Examples
Caribbean Flamingo Sisserou Parrot Turtle – Appendix I Sisserou Parrot - Appendix I Flamingo - Appendix II Boa – Appendix II Boa Constrictor Green Sea turtle

17 Trade - flora Orchids Cacti & succulents Bulbs (Snowdrops, Cyclamens)
Medicinal plants Ornamental trees Timber species

18 Flora - Caribbean Examples
cactus Orchids Cacti – Appendix I and II Orchids – Appendix II Mahogany – Appendix II Tree Fern – Appendix II St.Lucia Tree Fern Cuban Mahogany

19 Regulating Trade under CITES
CITES regulates the export, re-export and import of live and dead animals and plants and their parts and derivatives (for listed species only) through a system of permits and certificates These permits or certificates may only be issued if certain conditions are met and which must be presented when leaving or entering a country For Appendix I and II-listed species, the most important condition is that international trade must not be detrimental to their survival in the wild

20 CITES Authorities All countries that join the Convention must adopt legislation for its implementation The role and power of authorities responsible for implementation of CITES is defined in National Legislation The Management Authority in your country should clarify which legislation applies Other types of legislation (e.g. veterinary or phyto-sanitary certificates, import-export licenses) also apply to CITES specimens and may in certain cases even be more effective when dealing with illegal shipments

21 CITES Authorities Management Authority - A national management authority designated to implement the Convention. Scientific Authority- A national scientific authority designated to advise the Management Authority. Enforcement Authority – An agency designated with responsibility for enforcing the provisions of the Convention

22 Common Procedural Mechanisms
Similar authorities Similar requirements Similar procedures COMMON PROCEDURAL MECHANISMS Similar documents Similar rules and regulations

23 Role of Customs & Border Control
No role is specified for Customs in the Text of the Convention However, the Convention specifies that trade requires the presentation of valid permits or certificates, which usually involves Customs verification

24 Role of Customs check the validity of the documents submitted
Customs and Border Control officials: check the validity of the documents submitted ensure that they correspond to the actual goods combat fraud and check that prohibition and restriction measures are complied with collect duties and taxes conduct investigations at traders’ premises carry out checks on the transport of goods within the country

25 Role of Customs A Customs officer is usually the first (and sometimes the only) level of inspection of shipments of CITES specimens This places a great burden on Customs to verify that trade is in accordance with CITES, detect fraud and illegal trade where it occurs, and inform the Management Authority

26 Class Exercise What are the challenges for Customs of administering CITES within the region given the diversity in topography and culture of CARIFORUM states Participants will discuss in small groups and consider the situation in countries with land borders as well as island states

27 Caribbean Perspective
Import Control by Customs involves inspection of CITES documentation and ensuring phyto-sanitary or veterinary certification. Apart from ensuring compliance with the provisions of CITES there is also the need to prevent the introduction of Invasive Alien Species ( IAS)

28 Caribbean Perspective
Without compromising the import controls an equal emphasis should be on export control as there is also a risk of illegal trade in flora and fauna specimen being taken out of the countries of the region. Probable export risk situations include: Out going tourists ( cruise and air passengers) Crew members ( regular calls by tourist ships) Yachts and pleasure craft ( coastal moorings) Unmonitored land borders

29 CITES Complexity More than 32,000 species are listed in the Appendices
CITES comprises 25 Articles, plus Resolutions and Decisions National legislation is used to implement CITES, and it can have stricter measures Much additional information can be found in official Notifications, reports and proposals The evolving nature of CITES means changes in coverage, rules and procedures from year to year CITES is usually not the only task of Management and Scientific Authorities For Customs, CITES is but one of many responsibilities

30 …collaboration is necessary
In carrying out their work, CITES authorities and Customs authorities are not alone Experts may assist in the identification of specimens The CITES Secretariat and various CITES Management Authorities produce manuals on how to identify species Customs laboratories or other scientific institutions may analyze certain products to determine whether they contain CITES specimens CITES authorities can work together to solve the problem of what to do with seized specimens Training materials and courses are available, as well as other resources

31 …collaboration is necessary
Inter-agency collaboration and cooperation at the national level are essential CITES Authorities Customs Police Judiciary Resource sectors National-level partnerships are also very important for the effective implementation of the Convention, in particular those between implementing agencies. Such partnerships include close communication and collaboration between CITES Authorities (between Management Authorities, between Scientific Authorities, and between Management and Scientific Authorities); and between CITES Authorities and Customs, police and the judiciary; and between CITES Authorities and other branches of Government (such as resource sectors – e.g. fisheries and forestry). Partnerships between CITES Authorities and the private sector can also be very important in securing compliance with the Convention.

32 Summary CITES is an international agreement between governments that ensures that no species of wild fauna or flora is unsustainably exploited for international trade The Convention establishes the international legal framework and common procedural mechanisms for the prevention of international trade in endangered species, and for an effective regulation of international trade in others

33 Summary CITES regulates international trade in specimens of species of wild fauna and flora listed in its Appendices on the basis of a system of permits and certificates which are issued only when certain conditions are met, and which must be presented when leaving AND entering a country For Appendix-I listed species, international trade is generally prohibited, and for Appendix-II and –III listed species, international trade is permitted but regulated Inter-agency collaboration is essential for the effective implementation of CITES

34 Conclusion Answer any questions and discuss any areas of doubt
Review Unit Objectives Link to next Unit on Practical Aspects of MEA Enforcement.

35 CITES Secretariat Geneva

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