Presentation on theme: "Program Evaluation. Lecture Overview Program evaluation and program development Logic of program evaluation (Program theory) Four-Step Model Comprehensive."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture Overview Program evaluation and program development Logic of program evaluation (Program theory) Four-Step Model Comprehensive Quality Programming Empowerment Evaluation Group Activity
Program Development refers to the planning and implementation of a program determining its purposes and setting goals and outcomes, evaluating program process, and evaluating attainment of desired program outcomes and wider impacts.
History of Program Evaluation 1930’s human service field grew (post depression) WWII programs were launched to meet the needs for urban development and housing, technological and cultural education, occupation training, and preventive health activities. By the end of the 1950’s program evaluation was commonplace 1960’s increased papers on evaluation research 1970’s, evaluation was a distinct field 1980’s benefits and costs of programs 1990’s new social problems and booming economy
Program Evaluation Refers to the collection of evidence to judge the effectiveness of a community programs or other community interventions (com psych definition) The use of social research procedures to systematically investigate the effectiveness of social intervention programs (research definition).
Project Drug Abuse Resistance Education D.A.R.E. Most popular school based intervention Little evidence on its effectiveness Limited positive influence on psychological factors (self-esteem) How can this lack of measurable outcomes in a popular intervention be explained?
Reasons Why Programs May Be Unsuccessful Theory Failure: concerns program theory which is the rationale for why a particular intervention is considered appropriate for a particular problem with a specific target population Implementation Failure: concerns quality of program implementation (ie: program may not be generalizable)
Effects do not occur when……. The underlying assumptions of program theory are incorrect. The program, even if implemented well, doesn’t affect the variables specified by program theory. Or the activity or program is not implemented adequately
Logic Model Graphic representation of the program. Shows the logical connections between the conditions that contribute to the need for a program in a community, the activities aimed at addressing these conditions, and the outcomes and impacts expected to result from the activities.
Four Step Model of Program Evaluation (Lindsay & Wandersman, 1991) Step 1: Identify Goals and Desired Outcomes Step 2: Process Evaluation Step 3 Outcome Evaluation Step 4: Impact Evaluation:
STEP 1) Identifying Goals and Desired Outcomes What is your project striving for? Goals set a framework for specific outcomes. Program Developers MUST describe: The primary goals of the program Target population Outcomes desired
STEP 2) Process Evaluation Monitoring program activities helps organize program efforts Provides information to help manage the program accountability that the program is conducting what was done and who was reached After an evaluation of outcomes and impacts, the evaluation can provide information about why the program worked or did not work Can help decide whether or not you are ready to assess the effects of your program What were the intended and actual activities of the program/ Did you learn anything.
STEP 3) Outcome/Impact Evaluation Assess the immediate effects of a program “the bottom line” Looks at the desired outcomes defined in Step 1 and seeks evidence regarding the extent to which those outcomes were achieved Should be closely linked to goals, but more specific
STEP 4) Impact Evaluation Concerned with the ultimate effects of the program Impacts are ultimate or longer-term effects of the program
Comprehensive Quality Programming: 9 Strategies Why is the intervention or program needed? What are the program’s goals, target populations and desired outcomes? How does your program use the scientific knowledge and best practice of what works? How will this new program fit in with existing programs How will you carry out the program How well was the program carried out How did the program work? What can you do to improve the program the next time you do it? If the program or parts of the program were effective, what are you doing to continue institutionalize the program
Accountability Questions & Corresponding CQP Strategies Why is the intervention or program needed? What are the program’s goals, target populations and desired outcomes? How does your program use the scientific knowledge and best practice of what works? How will this new program fit in with existing programs How will you carry out the program How well was the program carried out How did the program work? What can you do to improve the program the next time you do it? If the program or parts of the program were effective, what are you doing to continue institutionalize the program Needs and assets assessments Identifying goals and desired outcomes Review research literature and best practices Community feedback and planning Planning, implementation Process evaluation Outcome and impact evaluations Continuous program improvement Institutionalization strategies
Empowerment Evaluation Program planners and developers learn the basics of program evaluation in ongoing program improvement. Help program developers and staff to achieve their program goals, by providing the with the tools for assessing and improving the planning, implementation, and results of their program.
Limitations of Evaluation Use of an outside evaluator Evaluation feedback is provided at the end of the program Evaluation findings are perceived as being too complex
Conclusions Program evaluation is necessary to find out whether a program is working Evaluation can be used for program planning and program implementation As society becomes more concerned about accountability and results, evaluation will become more necessary.
Group Activity Apply 4 step model in terms of your group project. Answer CQP questions