Flashbulb Memories Flashbulb Memories – Unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events. Examples What does actual research suggest about these recollections?
Repressed Memories Very controversial issue, sensationalized by media Numerous reports involving return of long lost memories of sexual abuse and other traumas during childhood Example of an extreme case
Support for Repressed Memories Many psychologists accept these memories at face value. Believe that sexual abuse during childhood is more widespread than people believe Natural for individuals to repress it
Skepticism for Repressed Memories Skeptics believe that suggestible people wrestling with emotional issues can be convinced by persuasive therapists that their problems are result of repressed sexual abuse. Therapists operating under questionable assumptions How do they attempt to get at these memories? There have been several discredited cases of repressed memories of sexual abuse Example
Deese-Roediger Mcdermott (DRM) Paradigm DRM Paradigm Demonstration What was the importance of this study?
Misinformation Effect Misinformation Effect – Occurs when participants’ recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading postevent information Famous Loftus “stop sign” study Participants viewed automobile accident slides In one slide, the car was seen stopped at yield sign Later in a questionnaire, a question asked participants “ Did the car stop at the stop sign?” What did results show? Importance to legal system
Change Blindness Change blindness- This phenomenon occurs when individuals fail to notice large changes to a visual scene. Sample Clip Simon and Levins Door study An actor was surreptitiously replaced in the middle of a conversation with an unsuspecting individual. Sample Clip Findings Issues for legal system
Own Race Bias Own Race Bias- Tendency for individuals of one race to have difficulty identifying members of a race other than their own. Relating to Eyewitnesses, eyewitnesses are more likely to misidentify someone of another race as the perpetrator of a crime. Typical Study: Participants of different races are exposed to simulated crime scenarios whereby the perpetrator is either of the same race or different race than they are. Following presentation of the simulated act, observers will be asked to choose the criminal they saw from a lineup. -Findings Possible Explanations/Implications to legal world
Police Interrogation Interview Issues McMartin Preschool Case How did Police get children to say these things? Suggestive Questions People, especially children, are suggestible and can be easily influenced by questions aiming to get something out of them Positive and Negative Consequences People may be more likely to give false statements, depending on consequences.
Other issues relating to eyewitnesses Weapon Focus Effect- Eyewitnesses are found to be less accurate regarding details of a crime if a weapon is involved Why might this be so? Source Monitoring Errors – Confusion over the source of memories Example