Starting Your Research Liberal Studies 196 Library Instruction Fall 2002
What is the assignment? Paper, Presentation, Annotated Bibliography? Due date – when is the last date for ILL? Citation Style? APA? MLA? Types of publications?
Basic Search Strategies: Sources Available Does your topic cover recent events or research? Newspapers, magazines, journals or the Internet are the best sources. Do you need current, general information? Try a popular magazine. Do you need current, in depth information? Try a scholarly journal. Do you need an overview? Try an encyclopedia, handbook or dictionary Do you need something more detailed? Try a book on the subject
Research Information Timeline Current Email, face to face, phone Months Scholarly articles, Conference reports Newspaper articles, popular magazines BooksReference resources Years
TimeLine Details http://wwwtest.library.ucla.edu/libraries/college/help/flow/hint.htm Report of Event (Documentation and Dissemination) Time Frame Radio/TV/Internet News Services Seconds/Minutes Newspapers (print)Day / Days+ Magazines (print)Week / Weeks Journals (print & electronic) 6 months + Books (print & electronic)2+ years Reference Sources (print & electronic) average 10 years
Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Sources Primary sources are original materials on which other research is based. It includes documents such as poems, diaries, court records, interviews, surveys, and fieldwork. Secondary sources describe or analyze the primary sources. Examples of secondary sources include: dictionaries, encyclopedias, textbooks, and books and articles that interpret or review research works. Print and online resources. Tertiary Sources, e.g., indexes and abstracts, serve to locate secondary and primary sources. An index will provide a citation which fully identifies the work: author, title of article, title of journal or book, publisher and date of publication.
Article Databases PopularGovernmentScholarly Lexis-Nexis Newspapers and Magazines Lexis-Nexis (Full-Text) Expanded Academic ASAP Full-Text ABI Newstand Newspapers and Magazines FirstGovAcademic Search Elite Full-Text CQ Researcher Full-Text ERIC (Index) Expanded Academic ASAP Full-Text
Need a book? 1. Search the Library's online catalog. Start with a keyword search in the Web version of the catalog. If you find a book that looks interesting, note the subject headings and search again using those words 2. If the first search does not retrieve useful books, try using variant spellings and related words 3. If too many titles were returned to review, click the sort button to see the most recent titles. Select a title that seems promising by clicking on the title in blue (Hyperlink). 4. Write down the floor location of the book and the call number where the book will be found on the shelf
Need an article? 1. Start with a keyword search in one of the full-text electronic journal databases like Academic Search Elite (EbscoHost) or Expanded Academic ASAP (InfoTrac). 2. If the first search does not retrieve useful articles, try using variant spellings and related words, for example, college students or university students. If you retrieve too many articles, you may need to narrower or topic (make it more specific) 3. Click on the peer-reviewed or refereed box if the article needs to be from a scholarly, expert or academic journal. Click the full-text box to retrieve only full-text and articles. It is possible to limit the search to articles written in a certain year or range of years.
Types of Periodicals: Scholarly Journals Authors are authorities in their fields. Authors cite their sources in endnotes, footnotes, or bibliographies. Individual issues have little or no advertising. Illustrations usually take the form of charts and graphs.
Types of Periodicals: Scholarly Journals Articles must go through a peer-review or refereed process. Scholarly/academic articles that are read by academic or scholar "referees" for advice and evaluation of content when submitted for publication. Referees recommend to the editor/editorial board whether the article should be published as is, revised, or rejected. Also sometimes know as "peer-reviewed" articles. Articles are usually reports on scholarly research. Articles use jargon of the discipline.
Popular Magazines and Newspapers Authors are magazine staff members or free lance writers. Authors often mention sources, but rarely formally cite them in bibliographies. Individual issues contain numerous advertisements. There is no peer review process. Articles are meant to inform and entertain. Illustrations may be numerous and colorful. Language is geared to the general adult audience (no specialized knowledge of jargon needed).
Evaluating Print Resources Every book, periodical article, or other resource should be evaluated to determine its quality and its relevance to your topic and the nature of your assignment. Use the criteria below to help you evaluate resources.criteria Authority Content & Coverage Timeliness Accuracy Objectivity
Evaluating Internet Resources Types of Web Sites: the url is a key.gov.edu.org.com Authority Content & Coverage Timeliness Accuracy Objectivity World Wide Web sites come in many sizes and styles. How do you distinguish a site that gives reliable information from one that gives incorrect information? Below are some guidelines to help.guidelines
Internet Resources vs. Surfing the Web Internet Resources include: Internet accessible databases and journals Use a Web interface Usually require subscription Exception: ERIC Wizard Equivalent to print indexes and journals Authoritative and reliable Surfing the Web: Use free search engines E.G.: Yahoo, Google, HotBot Critical evaluation required Anyone can put up a Web page! Evaluating Web pages (http://library.csun.edu/mwoodley/Webeval.html) Evaluating Web pageshttp://library.csun.edu/mwoodley/Webeval.html
Use Databases to Find Resources Books – online catalog CSUN Library Online Catalog Articles – index, abstracting service, or full-text database Find Articles and More Web pages – search engines Internet Search Tools
Basic Search Strategies: Words to Search by Jargon Keyword Controlled vocabulary – Subject words/phrases
Choosing keywords to search If one keyword does not work, try variations on the keyword Teen Job interviews teenage, teenager, adolescent, adolescence student or students If too many titles are returned, try searching more specific keywords employment interviewing, employment interviews, employee interviews
Basic Search Strategies: Putting concepts together “English mathematician who helped establish modern symbolic logic and whose algebra of logic, now called Boolean algebra, is basic to the design of digital computer circuits. “ Boolean Operators: and, or, not "Boole, George" Encyclopædia Britannica http://search.eb.com/eb/article?eu=82823 [Accessed August 18, 2002].http://search.eb.com/eb/article?eu=82823 George Boole, 1815-1864
Basic Search Strategies: Putting concepts together Boolean operator and Venn diagrams serve as a visual expression of the Boolean operations Teenagers Sex Education
Basic Search Strategies: Putting concepts together Boolean operator or Lesbians
Basic Search Strategies: Putting concepts together Boolean operator not Body Image School Behavior Adults and not
Truncation Symbol used at the end of a word to retrieve variant endings of that word. Allows you to search the "root" form of a word with all its different endings. For example: teen* will retrieve: teens, teenage, teenagers, teeny-bopper However: tee* will retrieve all the above, but also teeny, teem, teeth etc. Truncation symbols vary between all the databases
Wildcards Some databases allow for wildcards to be embedded within a word to replace a single character. For instance, in InfoTrac, you can also use ? within a word to replace a character. For example: Colo?r retrieves color, colour wom?n retrieves woman, women
Searching Tips Articles Titles: Look in indexes and full-text databases to find titles of articles Subjects: specific for the article Journal Titles: Look in Online Catalog to see if we own Subject access: very broad subject headings Book Titles: Look in online Catalog to see if we own Subject access: general terms that describe the book as a whole
Citations – How to Read and Record Online Style Guides: http://library.csun.edu/crussom/bibcit.html
ERIC Citation TI: Relative Reading Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 187 Children from First through Sixth Grades. (title of article) AU: Phillips, Linda M ; Norris, Stephen P ; Osmond, Wendy C ; Maynard, Agnes M (author) SO: Journal of Educational Psychology; v94 n1 p3-13 Mar 2002 (journal title and publication information) AN: EJ644659
MLA Citation Phillips, Linda M., Stephen P. Norris, and Wendy C. Osmond. “Relative Reading Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 187 Children from First through Sixth Grades.” Journal of Educational Psychology 94.1 (March 2002): 3-13.
Contact Information Kathy Dabbour firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com Mara Houdyshell firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Lynn Lampert firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Mary S. Woodley firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com