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Internet i jego zastosowania 1 J2EE Servlets. Internet i jego zastosowania 2 Agenda Overview Servlet Interface Servlet Context Request Response Sample.

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Presentation on theme: "Internet i jego zastosowania 1 J2EE Servlets. Internet i jego zastosowania 2 Agenda Overview Servlet Interface Servlet Context Request Response Sample."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internet i jego zastosowania 1 J2EE Servlets

2 Internet i jego zastosowania 2 Agenda Overview Servlet Interface Servlet Context Request Response Sample Servlet Sessions Dispatching Request Web Applications Deployment Descriptor

3 Internet i jego zastosowania 3 What is a Sevlet? Web component managed by servlet container Generates dynamic content, usually HTML Small, platform-independent classes compiled to bytecode Loaded dynamically and run by a container in conjunction with a web server Interacts with a web client via request - response model based on the the HTTP protocol Can access databases and other storage systems

4 Internet i jego zastosowania 4 What is a Servlet Container? Execution context of the servlet Provides network services over which requests and responses are exchanged Contains and manages servlets through their lifecycle Can be either built-in into a web server or web enabled application server or installed as an add-on component Must support the HTTP Protocol (at minimum HTTP/1.0) May place security restrictions on the environment that a servlet executes in (e.g. Number of simultenously running threads)

5 Internet i jego zastosowania 5 Benefits of Servlets Performance Scalability Distributed environment (distributable web applications) Multithreaded environment Portability Platform independence Ease of development Part of J2EE (Servlet API is a required API of J2EE) Standard supported by many vendors and web servers

6 Internet i jego zastosowania 6 Typical Scenario Request is submitted from a web browser Request is converted to a name-value list by the servlet container The service() method of a servlet is called with the name- value list together with the response as arguments The servlet processes the request by invoking EJBs, performing other business logic, connecting to databases or application server extensions The servlet prepares HTML code to return either directly printing to the response stream

7 Internet i jego zastosowania 7 The Servlet Interface void init(ServletConfig config); void service(ServletRequest req, ServletResponse res); void destroy(); ServletConfig getServletConfig(); java.lang.String getServletInfo(); Central abstraction of the Servlet API Interface implemented either directly or by extending

8 Internet i jego zastosowania 8 Servlet Life Cycle Loading and instantiating At start time Delayed until the service method of the servlet is requested The servlet container load the servlet class (file system, remote file system, other network services) The Servlet Container instantiates an object instance There can be more than one instance (SingleThreadModel) of a given servlet (several servlet definitions which point to the same class) or only one instance (MultipleThreadModel) Initialization Point where servlet can read any configuration data, persistent data, make a connection to a database and other costly resources, perform one-time activities The Servlet Container calls init method of the servlet and passes ServletConfig - access to name-value initialization parameters On error throw ServletException or UnavailableException

9 Internet i jego zastosowania 9 Servlet Life Cycle End of service A servlet instance may be kept active in a container for any amount of time The container allow any threads executing service method to complete The container executes destroy method - point where a servlet may release any resources and save its state to any persistance storage No requests can be routed to this instance of the servlet The instance is released so that it can be garbage collected

10 Internet i jego zastosowania 10 Servlet Life Cycle Request handling Each request represented by ServletRequest object Servlet can create the response by using object of type ServletResponse ServletRequest and ServletResponse are provided as parameters to service HTTP - HttpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse Errors during request handling ServletException UnavailableException Permanent - servlet should be removed from the service (destroy is called) Temporary - SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE (503) is returned with Retry- After header

11 Internet i jego zastosowania 11 Multithreading Requests MultipleThreadModel (default) One instance of a servlet class per servlet definition SingleThreadModel (marker interface) Multiple instances of the servlet. Ensures that servlets handle only one request at a time. No two threads will execute concurrently in the servlet's service method. The servlet container can make this guarantee by synchronizing access to a single instance of the servlet, or by maintaining a pool of servlet instances and dispatching each new request to a free servlet. The servlet is thread safe. SingleThreadedModel does not prevent synchronization problems that result from servlets accessing shared resources (static class variables, classes outside the scope of the servlet).

12 Internet i jego zastosowania 12 The Servlet Context A servlet's view of the web application within which it is running One instance per web application (per VM for distributed applications) The container implements the ServletContext interface ServletContext allows a servlet to set and store attributes, log events, obtain URL references to resources provides a set of methods that a servlet uses to communicate with its servlet container Context attributes - available to any other servlet of the web application (exits only locally in the VM) Resources - direct access to static documents (HTML, GIF, JPEG)

13 Internet i jego zastosowania 13 The Request Encapsulates information from the client HttpServletRequest - HTTP headers and message body Parameters getParameter, getParameterNames, getParameterValues String parameters stored as name-value pairs Possible multiple parameter values Attributes getAttribute, getAttributeNames, getAttributeValues Objects associated with a request set by the container or a servlet to communicate with another servlet Single values Cookies getCookies

14 Internet i jego zastosowania 14 Path Elements & Translation Request path is composed of Context PathgetContextPath Servlet PathgetServletPath Following is always true RequestURI = contextPath + servletPath Pattern:/garden Servlet:GardenServlet /catalog/garden/implements->ContextPath: /catalog ServletPath: /garden

15 Internet i jego zastosowania 15 The Response Encapsulates information to be returned to the client HttpServletResponse - HTTP headers and message body Cookies Helper methods sendRedirect sendError Typical use Either getOutputStream (binary data) or getWriter (text)

16 Internet i jego zastosowania 16 Sample Servlet public class SampleServlet extends HttpServlet { public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException, ServletException { response.setContentType("text/html"); PrintWriter out = response.getWriter(); out.println(" "); out.println("Hello World!"); out.println(" "); }

17 Internet i jego zastosowania 17 Sessions HTTP - stateless protocol Different requests from the same client should be associated with each other Strategies for session tracking Hidden variables URL rewriting Cookies In servlet environment Session tracking implemented by servlet container HttpSession provided as an convenient interface A session persists for a specified period of time

18 Internet i jego zastosowania 18 HttpSession View and manipulate information about a session, such as the session identifier, creation time, last accessed time Bind objects to sessions, allowing user information to persist across multiple user connections Session information is scoped only to the current web application (ServletContext) Binding attributes into a session getAttribute, setAttribute, removeAttribute HttpSessionBindingListener - causes an object to be notified when it is bound to or unbound from a session Session timeouts because there is no explicit client termination

19 Internet i jego zastosowania 19 Session Semantics Multiple servlets may have access to a single session object Synchronization is the responsibility of a developer For applications marked as distributable session objects must implement interface Scalability - in distributed environment session objects can be moved from any active node to some other node of the system All windows of a client are participating in the same session

20 Internet i jego zastosowania 20 Dispatching Requests forward - pass processing to another servlet Including output of another servlet in the response RequestDispatcher; can be obtained from ServletContext include Can be called at any time Included servlet cannot set headers or call any method that affects the headers of the response forward Can only be called if no output has been commited to a client

21 Internet i jego zastosowania 21 Web Applications Collection of servlets, JSPs, HTML pages and other resources bundled and run on possibly multiple containers Rooted at a specific path eg. By default one instance must only be run on one VM Distributable web applications - components distributed across multiple containers 1:1 mapping between web application and ServletContext Representation Structured hierarchy of directories Archive file

22 Internet i jego zastosowania 22 Open Directory Structure Root directory eg. /catalog Special WEB-INF directory - not a part of public document tree Sample directory structure: /index.html /howto.jsp /feedback.jsp /images/logo.gif /WEB-INF/web.xml /WEB-INF/lib/jspbeans.jar /WEB-INF/classes/com/dsrg/servlets/Test.class /WEB-INF/classes/com/dsrg/util/Helper.class

23 Internet i jego zastosowania 23 Deployment Descriptor Elements and configuration information of a web application Contents of a deployment descriptor ServletContext init parameters Session configuration Servlet/JSP definitions Servlet/JSP mappings Mime Type mappings Welcome file list Error pages Security info XML document

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