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Chapter 9-The High Middle Ages

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1 Chapter 9-The High Middle Ages

2 Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church
Nobles and the Church had as much, if not more, power than feudal monarchs…this power was jealously guarded Monarchs took strides to centralize their power: Set up a system of royal justice that undermined other courts Organized a gov. bureaucracy Imposed taxes Built an army Strengthened ties with middle class A strong Monarchy was achieved in England and France

3 England Norman Conquest: Duke William, a Viking of Normandy, triumphed over, Anglo-Saxon heir to the throne, Harold to assume the throne of England William held tight control of his kingdom and worked hard to expand royal power and influence

4 Next was Henry II Henry worked on broadening the strength of royal justice by the following English Common Law: a legal system based on custom and court rulings that applied to everyone He set up a jury His efforts led to conflict with the Church Conflict over sever years led to the murder of the archbishop in his own cathedral in Canterbury After his death, Henry eased his attempts to regulate the clergy

5 More on Early English Government
Conflicts between nobles and the Church continued King John stepped in after Henry-right into 3 specific troubles/enemies: Phillip II of France-over lands Pope Innocent III-over selecting a new archbishop of Canterbury His own nobles-over him placing all of England under the interdict John fled to Rome and returned to further anger his people with taxes and other abuses John was forced to sign the Magna Carta which severely limited his power and created a parliament

6 Assignment Complete the activity on p.209

7 France Throne belonged to Hugh Capet some time after Charlemagne.
Hugh slowly increased royal power by: Making the throne hereditary Adding to their lands Winning the support of the church Gained support of middle class Most important: built an effective bureaucracy

8 A line of Kings and how they Contributed
Philip Augustus II: appointed middle class men to fill gov. positions who would owe their loyalty; granted charters; organized a standing army; collected taxes; increased land holdings-became most powerful in Europe Louis IX: devoted to justice and chivalry; declared a saint shortly after his death; very religious; he did the following: ended serfdom; held local officials in check; waged wars against Muslims; helped create a strong national feeling among his people; centralized gov. Philip IV: enforces drastic taxes on the clergy that led to conflict with Pope Boniface VIII; set up the Estates General-body of representatives from all social classes

9 The Holy Roman Empire Otto I King of Germany helped the pope and in return was crowned Holy Roman Emperor-considered holy b/c crowned by the pope and Roman b/c they saw themselves heirs of Ancient Rome With this new title came a challenge to control vassals of individual lands as well as conflict with popes over appointment of church officials

10 Conflict btwn. Popes and Emperors
Pope Gregory VII: made efforts to isolate power/authority of the Church to the Church-rather than including secular rulers; advocated that the pope alone had the right to appoint bishops, etc. This led to conflict with Emperor Henry IV Gregory excommunicated Henry and years later forgave him In revenge, Henry later took men to Rome to force the Pope into exile This struggle lasted for years and in 1122 both sides signed the treaty known as the Concordat of Worms Said that the Pope had sole power to appoint bishops through spiritual authority and Emperors had the right to invest them with fiefs

11 Conflict continues in spite of the Treaty
Everyone wanted control in Italy Fredrick Barbarossa I: arranged a marriage with his son Henry and Constance, heiress to Sicily and S. Italy. This marriage entangled German and Italian Affairs Fredrick II: son of the arranged marriage; actions led to a broken Germany and frustrated popes who sought support from the French A French and Spanish rival for power developed and led to 200 years of chaos

12 Assignment Copy Cause and Effect chart on p. 219 into your notes

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