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Practical Phonetics Week 2

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1 Practical Phonetics Week 2
Classifying sounds: place and manner of articulation Where and how sounds are made

2 Thinking about sounds Say ‘mmmm’ – where is the ‘m’ sound produced?
It’s a bilabial consonant (this is the place of articulation) Pinch your nose – what happens? It stops: it’s a nasal (not an oral) consonant Put your fingers in your ears – what do you hear? The vibrations of the vocal cords: it’s a voiced consonant

3 Some places of articulation: bilabial consonants
lips p pie b buy m mute w wood

4 Labiodental consonants
upper teeth lower lip f fine v vine

5 Dental consonants upper teeth tip of tongue θ thin ð this

6 t tie d die s Sue z zoo n night l light Alveolar consonants
alveolar ridge tip/blade of tongue t tie d die s Sue z zoo n night l light

7 Post-alveolar / palato-alveolar consonants
ʃ shoe, pressure Ʒ pleasure ʧ cheap ʤ jeep r rack

8 Palatal consonants j yes

9 Velar consonants velum back of tongue k curl g girl ŋ rang

10 Some manners of articulation: plosives (think explosion) or stops
Bilabial: p b Alveolar: t d Velar: k g

11 Fricatives (think friction)
Palato-alveolar or post-alveolar: ʃ Ʒ Labiodental: f v Alveolar: s z

12 Oral Nasal (Velum is lowered, allowing air to enter the nasal cavity)

13 Nasals Bilabial: m Alveolar: n Velar: ŋ

14 Other consonants ʤ = voiced post-alveolar affricate
Affricates (a combination of stop + fricative): ʧ = voiceless post-alveolar affricate ʤ = voiced post-alveolar affricate Approximant (articulators approach each other but do not touch): w r j Lateral (also called lateral approximant; air flows over sides of tongue): l

15 Summary of Places of Articulation
Bilabial (lips) p b m w Labiodental (lips and teeth) f fine v vine Dental (tongue and teeth) θ thin ð then Alveolar (tongue and alveolar ridge) t d s z n l Palato-alveolar (tongue and front part of hard palate) ʃ shoe ʒ measure ʧ cheap ʤ jeep r Palatal (tongue and hard palate) j yes Velar (tongue and velum) k g ŋ running Glottal (glottis) h

16 Summary of manners of articulation
Plosive / Stop p b t d k g Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h Affricate (stop + fricative) ʧ ʤ Nasal m n ŋ Approximants w r j (central) l (lateral)

17 Classifying consonants
Voiced or voiceless Place of articulation (Central or lateral) (Oral or nasal) Manner of articulation Example 1 : s (sing): A voiceless, alveolar, (central), (oral) fricative A voiceless, alveolar plosive/stop = ? /t/ What is /k/? - A voiceless, velar plosive/stop

18 The International Phonetic Alphabet: the English consonants
Full IPA with audio illustrations:

19 And finally…an x-ray (not x-rated) movie:
Review activities Complete the “Classifying Consonants” chart Labels practice: Symbols practice:

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