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The Indian Sub-Continent Since 1947 Pakistan & India.

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Presentation on theme: "The Indian Sub-Continent Since 1947 Pakistan & India."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Indian Sub-Continent Since 1947 Pakistan & India

2 Independence The sub-continent was “partitioned” prior to independence to avoid a civil war between the Hindus & the Muslims The areas with a Hindu majority became India with Jawaharlal Nehru serving as the first Prime Minister beginning August 15, 1947 The 2 areas with Muslim majorities became Pakistan with Muhammad Ali Jinnah as Prime Minister August 15, 1947

3 India India is the world’s largest democracy, 2 nd most populous country in the world After independence the nation had many problems to deal with 1.Angry Hindus felt that too much had been given up to Pakistan, led to the assassination of the Mahatma 2.Border disagreements with Pakistan- last to this day in Kashmir & the Siachen Glacier-both nations have nuclear weapons now

4 India Cont’d 3.Developing a strong economy- The Green Revolution of the 1960s helped India develop stronger crops & feed the population with fewer farmers 4.Terrorism- Several groups have operated within India, Sikhs (religious minority) & the Tamil Tigers in Southern India fought until recently, Al Qaida & the Taliban have launched attacks in the last 5 years

5 1 st Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru served as Prime Minister from 1948-1964 His leadership stressed democracy, unity, & economic modernization The 1950 Constitution outlawed the untouchables within the Caste System

6 Indian Leadership Indira Gandhi-Nehru’s daughter- served four terms as Prime Minister between 1966-1984 She was assassinated by her Sikh body guards in retaliation for an attack on the Golden Temple at Amritsar

7 Indian Leadership Cont’d Rajiv Gandhi took over as Prime Minister after his mother’s assassination in 1984 Lost power in 1989 after accusations of corruption Killed by a car bomb while campaigning in 1991

8 Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah serves as first Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1947-1948

9 Pakistan Cont’d West Pakistan had the capitol, Islamabad & all government offices East Pakistan had a majority of the population but was virtually ignored by the central government The only link between the 2 regions was religion


11 Pakistan Leadership He was deposed & then executed by Gen. Zia in 1977 Zia dies in a plane crash in 1988 The death of Jinnah within a year of independence left Pakistan without strong leadership There have been multiple military coups the first in 1958 Ali Bhutto took power after the civil war

12 Pakistan in Disarray Benazir Bhutto-Ali Bhutto’s daughter- took power after Gen. Zia’s death She was removed from office in 1996 after corruption charges Killed by a car bomb in December 2008 while campaigning after returning to Pakistan General Parvez Musharraf takes power in a military coup in 1999 He resigned in August 2008 during impeachment movements by the 2 leading parties

13 Pakistan Today Benazir Bhutto’s party won the general elections in February 2009 Her husband Asif Ali Zardari serves as Prime Minister today Pakistan is a hot bed of terrorist activity, especially Waziristan along the Afghan border

14 Bangladesh

15 Sri Lanka Sri Lanka gained independence in February 1948 75% of the population are Buddhist Sinhalese 25% are Hindu Tamils Tamil Tigers just surrendered in 2009 ending the civil war The Sri Lankan government is trying to figure out how to reintegrate the rebel fighters into society

16 Nepal The one of the newest democratic republics in the world June 1, 2001 Crown Prince Dipendra killed most of the royal family in a drunken rage The King’s brother Gyanendra became king He abolished the parliament in 2005 Parliament was re-established in 2006 The monarchy was abolished in May 2008

17 Afghanistan Dominated by Britain & Russia during the 19 th century Became an independent nation with a monarchy in 1919 after the British left 1964 attempted to develop a democratic government but groups could not agree on reforms

18 Afghanistan cont’d 1973 Military coup overthrows the king 1978 Communists overthrow the military Afghanis felt communism conflicted with Islam 1979 USSR invades Afghanistan to support communists U.S. supports the mujahedeen fighting against the USSR & communists 1989 USSR pulls out of Afghanistan

19 Civil War 1989-1998 Several groups fight for control of Afghanistan 1998 Conservative Islamic extremists the Taliban control 90% of the country Northern Alliance is the only rival left to fight them Society changed overnight- women no longer allowed to work or go to school, women must wear burkas in public, music, dancing, TV, & movies are outlawed


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