Presentation on theme: "The Changing Well-being of Older Status First Nations Adults An Application of the Registered Indian Human Development Index Symposium on Aboriginal Experiences."— Presentation transcript:
The Changing Well-being of Older Status First Nations Adults An Application of the Registered Indian Human Development Index Symposium on Aboriginal Experiences in Aging Saskatoon, September 17-19, 2008 Martin Cooke, University of Waterloo Eric Guimond, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
Outline Background: HDI and Methodology The older Registered Indian Population Mortality Income Educational attainment Conclusions
Background Concerned about the changing well-being of older Registered Indians –Well-being of older people reflects the cumulative effects of life experiences –Accumulation, depletion, or stability in health, human, social, financial capitals An aging population may present challenges for communities, organizations, governments –Generally a focus on policies aimed at Aboriginal youth –Older people may not be well-served by policies aimed at the older population in general, or at younger Aboriginal peoples How has the well-being of older Registered Indians changed 1981-2001? Are improvements seen at the population level reflected in the older population?
Background Demographically younger than the general Canadian population, but aging Aboriginal Identity population –5.2% aged 60 and over in 1996 –8.6% in 2001 (80,000 people) Large cohort now in their 50s. True for Métis, Inuit, and non-status Indians and Registered Indians, on- and off-reserve
Absolute and Relative Size of the Registered Indian Population and Other Canadians Aged 50 and Older, Canada, 1981 and 2001 19812001 50-59 Registered Indians14,465 (8.2%)39,025 (10.7%) Other Canadians2,393,450 (13.0%)3,617,025 (15.3%) 60 and older Registered Indians16,410 (9.3%)35,245 (10.7%) Other Canadians1,843,1985 (16.4%)4,315,260 (18.3%) 80 and older Registered Indians 1,970 (1.1%)3,345 (0.9%) Other Canadians339,135 (1.8%) 737,355 (4.0%) Sources: Statistics Canada, 1981 and 2001 Censuses of Canada.
Percentage of Registered Indian Population Aged 60 and Older, by Province/Region, 1981-2001 Sources: Statistics Canada, 1981 and 2001 Censuses of Canada. The proportion of Registered Indian aged 60 and older varies significantly from region to region. In 2001, this proportion was highest in Quebec, Ontario and BC.
Measuring Well-Being : The Registered Indian HDI Identifying changing social and economic conditions of Registered Indians 1981-2001 Based on the UNDP’s Human Development Index (HDI) –Knowledge (necessary for full social participation) –Income (material standard of living) –Health (a long and healthy life) Income and knowledge measures based on Census Life expectancy estimates derived from Indian Register data and published life tables.
Measuring Well-Being : The Registered Indian HDI Each indicator is calculated as the distance between a theoretical minimum and maximum score, and ranges from 0 to 1 Income is logged and adjusted by the CPI Two education indicators are combined into a single index –Functional literacy proxy (Grade 9; 2/3 weight) –Higher educational attainment (High school+; 1/3 weight) Three indices (life expectancy, education, income) are combined to form the HDI The Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate at INAC is engaged in ongoing analyses using the HDI to find out how Registered Indian well-being is changing over time.
Human Development Index (HDI) for Registered Indians and Other Canadians, Canada, 1981-2001 The HDI for Registered Indians is significantly lower than that observed for other Canadians. The HDI gap between Registered Indians and other Canadians has been narrowing since 1981. But improvements over the 1996-2001 period have not resulted in a significant ‘gap reduction’. Gap =.179 Gap =.178 Gap =.146 Gap =.125 Gap =.115 Sources: Statistics Canada, 1981 to 2001 Censuses of Canada.
Measuring the Well-being of Older Registered Indians (50+) Life Expectancy at specific Ages –From the Indian Register (Verma, Michalowski et al. 2003) & Statistics Canada life tables –Max/min values from model life tables (Coale and Demeny, 1965; Coale and Guo, 1989) Educational attainment Index –Proportion with grade nine or higher (2/3 weight) –Proportion with high school or some post-secondary (1/3 weight) Income Index –Census average household income –Min $200, max $80,000 Calculated for 5-year age groups 50-79, 80+ An age-specific HDI has also been developed for the monitoring of the well-being of the Registered Indian youth population (15-29).
Life Expectancy at Ages 60, 70, and 80, Registered Indian (RI) and Other Canadians (OC) Females, Canada, 1981-2001 Life expectancy for older Registered Indian and other Canadian women.has increased since 1981. The life expectancy gap between Registered Indian and other Canadian women has narrowed slightly between 1981 and 2001. Sources: Statistics Canada 1984; Statistics Canada 1988; Statistics Canada 1990; Statistics Canada 1995; Verma, Michalowski et al. 2003; Statistics Canada 2006.
Life Expectancy at Ages 60, 70, and 80, Registered Indian (RI) and Other Canadians (OC) Males, Canada, 1981-2001 Sources: Statistics Canada 1984; Statistics Canada 1988; Statistics Canada 1990; Statistics Canada 1995; Verma, Michalowski et al. 2003; Statistics Canada 2006. Life expectancy for older Registered Indian and other Canadian men.has also increased since 1981. Contrary to women, the life expectancy gap between Registered Indian and other Canadian men has increased slightly between 1981 and 2001.
Average Annual Household Income by Age Group Registered Indians (RI) and Other Canadians (OC) Canada, 1981-2001 (2000 $) Registered Indians have lower incomes at older ages that other Canadians. Older Registered Indian household incomes improved relatively little between 1981 and 2001. Sources: Statistics Canada, 1981 to 2001 Censuses of Canada.
Average Annual Household income by Birth Cohort and Age Group, Registered Indians (RI) and Other Canadians (OC), Canada, (2000 $) Household income declines with age, but more for other Canadians than Registered Indians. More recent cohorts of other Canadians have higher incomes before and after age 65. Among Registered Indians, higher incomes at ages 50-59 have not translated into higher incomes after age 65. Sources: Statistics Canada, 1981 to 2001 Censuses of Canada. Registered Indians Other Canadians
Educational Attainment Index by Birth Cohort and Age Group, Registered Indians and Other Canadians, Canada Sources: Statistics Canada, 1981 to 2001 Censuses of Canada. Other CanadiansRegistered Indians
Human Development Index (HDI) for Registered Indians (RI) and Other Canadians (OC) Aged 55-79 Canada, 1981-2001 There is a general improvement in Older Registered Indians HDI scores since 1981. The HDI gap between Registered Indians and other Canadians aged 50-54, 55-59 has narrowed. The HDI gap for those aged 70 and older has widened slightly. Sources: Statistics Canada, 1981 to 2001 Censuses of Canada.
Human Development Index (HDI) for Registered Indians (RI) Aged 55-74 by Gender Canada, 1981-2001 According to the HDI, older Registered Indian women display a better quality of life than men, largely because of higher life expectancy. Differences between women and men have widened between 1981 and 2001. Sources: Statistics Canada, 1981 to 2001 Censuses of Canada.
Conclusion Overall, HDI scores for older registered Indians improved since 1981. However, –Life expectancy for older Registered Indian men did not improve at the same pace as for other Canadian men ; –Household incomes for cohorts recently reaching retirement ages were virtually the same as for previous cohorts ; –The overall HDI gap between Registered Indians and other Canadians decreased for those still in working ages (50-65), were constant for those 65-69, and widened for those over 70.
Conclusion Improvements meant increasing disparity between Older Registered Indian men and women –Increasing heterogeneity in older Registered Indian population –Importance of monitoring conditions of sub-populations, for whom general policies might not be appropriate It remains to be seen whether the higher incomes and education of the large cohort aged 50-59 in 2001 will be reflected in higher incomes and better health when they reach retirement ages.