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Reconstruction (1865 – 1877) Era following the Civil War when the U.S. government: Brought Southern states back into the Union Ended slavery and attempted.

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Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction (1865 – 1877) Era following the Civil War when the U.S. government: Brought Southern states back into the Union Ended slavery and attempted."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reconstruction (1865 – 1877) Era following the Civil War when the U.S. government: Brought Southern states back into the Union Ended slavery and attempted to protect freedmen Rebuilt the nation

2 Reconstruction occurred in two phases:
Presidential Reconstruction Lenient to allow Southern states to quickly rejoin Union Initiated by Lincoln; Carried out by Johnson Congressional Reconstruction Directed by Radical Republicans – wanted stricter plan Keep Confederate leaders from regaining power in the South Protect rights of freedmen (former slaves)

3 Presidential Reconstruction
Lincoln’s Plan Andrew Johnson’s Plan 10% Plan -Quick and Easy Former Confederate states could re-enter Union when: 10% of state’s population had to take oath of allegiance to U.S. Recognize freedom of former slaves Swear allegiance to the Union Hold state constitutional conventions - set up state govt Cancel secession & ratify (approve) the 13th Amendment States could then hold elections

4 Congressional Reconstruction (Radical Republicans)
Rejected President’s plan Did nothing to protect former slaves or keep Confederate leaders from re-gaining power in the South Wanted 50% to swear oath of allegiance Former slaves should receive full citizenship and voting rights Thaddeus Stevens (Penn.) Charles Sumner (Mass.) Wanted Congress to oversee Reconstruction Majority of state’s population should have to swear allegiance for admittance to the Union **More difficult process of mending Union**

5 Freedman’s Bureau Created by Congress in 1865
Assisted former slaves and poor whites in transition from society based on slavery to one allowing freedom Run by the war department Distributed clothing & food Set up 40 hospitals Set up 4,000 schools

6 Civil Rights Act of 1866 Declared that African Americans were citizens
Denied states’ right to restrict citizens rights to: Testify in court against whites Make contracts Hold property Johnson vetoed law Congress overrides with 2/3

7 Black Codes White southerners reestablished civil authority
Restrictive laws known as “black codes” Many former slaves had to sign yearly labor contracts Former slaves could NOT: Carry weapons Serve on juries Testify against whites Marry whites Own land (Only in some states)

8 Congressional Reconstruction (Radicals and Moderates united to pass legislation)
Congress pushed through Reconstruction Acts beginning in 1867 Southern states put under military rule Southern states hold new constitutional conventions African Americans allowed to vote - in the states Equal rights for African Americans Ratification of the 14th Amendment (citizenship)


10 Reconstruction Amendments
13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment 1865 “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude…shall exist in the United States” 1868 “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” are citizens 1870 No one can be kept from voting because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”

11 Andrew Johnson Impeached (Formally charged with wrongdoing)
Tenure of Office Act (1867) President couldn’t fire cabinet members Johnson thought this act was unconstitutional Fires Secretary of War – Edwin Stanton Law was later declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court House of Representatives charges him Senate tries the case Required 2/3 vote to remove from office Vote was 35 to 19 – one vote short of 2/3 needed for removal from office

12 Ulysses Grant Elected in 1868
Because of Congressional Reconstruction, African-American men in the South could vote for the first time Civil War hero won presidency Worked with Congress to reconstruct the South By 1868, most Confederate states had been re-admitted to the Union under Congressional Reconstruction

13 Re-admission of the South

14 Politics in the South Scalawags carpetbaggers
Southerners who joined the Republican Party Many southerners were hopeful for change Some wanted to gain political office through the African American vote Northerners who moved South after the war Southerners believed they wanted to profit from condition of the South Some were agents of the Freedman’s Bureau, teachers, or ministers

15 Politics and African Americans
Period of saw greater African American involvement in politics Local, State, and Federal levels Many of those running for office had been educated in the North Hiram Revels – elected to Mississippi state senate in 1869 1870 – 1st African American elected to U.S. Senate

16 Southern Economy “40 acres and a mule”
Promised by General Sherman President Johnson returned land to original owners Homestead Act – 1866 Set aside 44 million acres for freed blacks Unsuitable for farming Sharecropping Landowners divided land Workers gave a share of crop to landowner Tenant farming Land rented from landowners

17 Southern Opposition Ku Klux Klan Spread through South
Started in Tennessee in 1866 Nathan Bedford Forrest 1st Grand Dragon Former Confederate General Left Klan due to violence Spread through South Turned into violent terrorist organization

18 Compromise of 1877 Compromise: Election of 1876 Democrats accept Hayes
Grant would not pursue a third term - scandal Republicans Rutherford B. Hayes Democrats Samuel Tilden Tilden wins popular vote, but loses electoral vote 20 electoral votes disputed Compromise: Democrats accept Hayes Withdrawal of federal troops from southern states Federal money for infrastructure Hayes to choose conservative for Cabinet post

19 Conclusion As a result of Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1877)
All eleven Southern states were re-admitted to the Union The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were passed Providing protections and opportunities for African Americans in the South Difficult to enforce and sustain as Democrats slowly took back the Southern legislatures Jim Crow laws, poll taxes, property qualifications

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