Presentation on theme: "Medieval Conflicts of Church and States. I. Early Middle Ages 800 Charlemagne in Rome crowned Emperor by Pope. Charlemagne gets moral authority. The Church."— Presentation transcript:
I. Early Middle Ages 800 Charlemagne in Rome crowned Emperor by Pope. Charlemagne gets moral authority. The Church gets “protection.: Who is supreme?
II. Church a unity of secular and spiritual. Religion dominates individual lives Secular Clergy---bishops, archbishops, pope. -Wield power, collect taxes, build churches. Church keep baptism records, death records, houses travelers, cares for ill, does charity, as well as providing sacraments for salvation. Regular Clergy- monks continued…
Educational leadership. Creates educational institutions— cathedral school, then universities. 3 graduate disciplines: Theology, Medicine, Canon Law. Canon law for church in 1300 is more advanced than individual state laws. States need to hire churchmen to have literate civil servants. Even courtly love written down by churchman, like Art of Courtly Love, by Andreas Capellanus. (Church a unity of Secular and Spiritual) Pope Urban II in 1095 calls for Crusade to free Holy Land from Muslim Turks. Rulers send knights. Hospitallers and Templars fight as military-monastic orders
III. Growth of feudal states leads to conflicts between Rulers and Pope. In the 9 th and 10 th centuries Kings and Popes conflicted over who could appoint high church officils.. A. Holy Roman Empire Hildebrand (Pope Gregory VII) vs. Emperor Henry IV in German lands -Henry’s council of bishops declare independence from Pope. -Pope excommunicated Henry. -1077 Henry was a penitent - barefoot 3 days in Canossa. -Pope granted Henry absolution -Pope Calixtus II signed Concordat of Worms with Emperor Henry V.
B. England -King Henry II struggled with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas à Becket -Becket rose to post through service to the King, changed to support church side after appointed. -Henry wanted churchmen tried in state courts, punished by secular authorities. -Thomas defended clerical immunity. The Pope backed Thomas -1170 Henry’s men killed Becket in Cathedral of Canterbury
C. France Pope Innocent III (d. 1216) defended papal supremacy. Excommunicated King John of England Pope Boniface VIII 1302 declared Unam Sanctam, supremacy of church over secular rulers. Philip IV the Fair of France ordered men to seize Pope. Boniface, who died soon after, in 1303, and Philip kept the church in Avignon. 1309-1377 “Babylonian Captivity” no pope in Rome, Papal palace in Avignon, center for humanist scholarship, collects ancient manuscripts 1378-1417 Schism. French puppet popes continued in Avignon, while another set of popes ruled in Rome.