3 Elicited BehaviorReflex - Response elicited by a specific stimulus. Salivation, knee jerk, etc.
4 Elicited BehaviorModal Action Pattern (MAP) – Orderly sequence of reflexive behaviors.Concept put forth by ethologists Tinbergen and Lorenz.Species typical behavior, e.g., feeding, mating, social behaviors, etc.Evolutionarily important behaviors, “instinctive”Elicited by complex array or sequence of stimuli.Elicitation can depend on motivation (“action-specific energy”)
5 Modal Action Pattern Video of egg retrieval in goose What is the sign stimulus?
6 MAPs in Humans?Lorenz claimed that caring for young (and the associated affective responses) are MAPs.The sign stimuli are:Head large in proportion to the bodyProtruding forehead large in proportion to the size of the rest of the faceLarge ears and eyes below the midline of the headSmall noseShort thick extremitiesRounded body shapeSoft elastic body surfacesRound protruding cheeks
14 Repeated stimulationElicited behavior is not plastic, but can change with repeated stimulation.Habituation effectDecreased response with repeated stimulation.Sensitization effectIncreased response with repeated stimulation.
28 SensitizationIn general Sensitization effects can be influenced by similar parameters as habituation.However, generalization is greater in Sensitization.Following exposure to cutaneous pain, rats’ reactivity to a wide range of auditory stimuli is increased.Sensitization can be thought of as “arousal”.
29 Sensitization “arousal” effect Sensitization Movie
44 Dual-Process theory of Habituation and Sensitization 2 underlying processes exist1) A Habituation process2) A Sensitization processThe observable behavior is the sum of these two processes.The habituation effect is observed when thehabituation process is greater than the sensitization process.
45 Dual Process examplesHabituation effectSensitization effect
46 Groves and Thompson (1970)S-R System: Habituation is thought to occur in thereflex arc.State System: Sensitization is thought to occur in the part of the nervous system that determines general responsiveness.