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Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa
After WWII, African leaders threw off colonial rule and created independent countries.

2 Negritude Movement A movement for African independence that started before World War II. French–speaking Africans and West Indians celebrated their heritage of traditional African culture and values. Colonies with local governments had easier transitions Borders that had little to do with where the ethnic groups lived caused conflict

3 Ghana [former British colony] 1957
Revolutionary Leader: Kwame Nkrumah Nkrumah’s Tactics: Organized boycotts and strikes Reforms: Expensive Health, education, & welfare programs Dreamed of “United States of Africa” Problems he faced: Overthrown by a coup in 1966 Political & Economic Instability since then British colony of the Gold Coast First to achieve independence Nkrumah was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African interests

4 Kwami Nkrumah

5 President of Ghana President John Dramani MAHAMA

6 Kenya [Former British Colony] 1963
Tactics used by the Mau-Mau: Frighten whites & forced them out of the northern highlands Used guerilla tactics Kenyatta’s Reforms: Tried to unite ethnic & language groups Develop businesses Resulting Problems: Civil Unrest under next leader, Daniel arap Moi British colony Mau-Mau was a secret society made up of mostly native Kenyan farmers forced out of the British highlands Kenyetta was imprisoned by the British for nearly a decade


8 President Uhuru KENYATTA

9 Zaire, 1960 (Democratic Republic of Congo)
Former colony of Belgium Gained independence by: Granted suddenly by Belgium Mobutu’s rule was: Brutal & Corrupt. Resulting problems: Depleted resources Extreme Poverty Social Unrest; He was overthrown by Laurent Kabila in Kabila was assassinated in His son, Joseph Kabila, took power. Belgian Congo Mobutu ruled for 32 years 2006 Joseph Kabila signed peace deals – violence again in the region

10 Mobutu Sese Seko

11 Laurent Kabila Joseph Kabila Current

12 Algeria [Former colony of France] 1962
Gained independence by: FLN (Algerian Nat’l Liberation Front) fought against France for their independence. Ben Bella’s Program Attempted to form a socialist state but was overthrown by a coup in 1965 Problems: Unsuccessful attempts to industrialize High Unemployment Rise of Fundamentalist Islamists Continuing civil unrest

13 Ahmed Ben Bella

14 Current President of Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika
“Elected” in after all other candidates dropped out.

15 Angola [Former colony of Portugal] 1975
Gained independence by: Fought against Portugal Causes of their civil war: Communist rebel group MPLA declared itself the rightful ruler of independent Angola. They were supported by Cuba & USSR UNITA rebel group fought against MPLA with support from the USA Continuing problems: Civil war continued until 2002. Portuguese sent 50,000 troops to keep Angola MPLA took over after the Portuguese withdrew, supported by 50,000 Cuban troops

16 José Eduardo dos Santos
President of Angola since l979. His son is Vice President.

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