Presentation on theme: "Europe Developed Into Monarchies Feudalism had collapsed. National monarchies replaced. Intense competition for land and trade lead to many wars. Religious."— Presentation transcript:
Europe Developed Into Monarchies Feudalism had collapsed. National monarchies replaced. Intense competition for land and trade lead to many wars. Religious differences sparked civil wars. Through 15 th and 14 th centuries, kings/queens had to weaken the nobility, the church, and municipal government. How?
Bureaucracy Centralized administration Dependent on the king Taxes Raised to obtain funds to finance the monarch's exploits Still subject to Parliament approval Army Strengthened Paid by the monarch and obeyed his orders Diplomatic Network Created web of allies, friends Maintained relations with neighbouring countries The Effective Monarch
Focus What challenges did King Charles I face when he became Emperor Charles V? What were some artistic achievements of Spain’s golden age? How did Spain rise and then decline under Philip II? Main Idea Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s, but economic problems and military struggles decreased Spanish power by the 1600s. The Power of Spain
Absolute monarchs believed they ruled by divine right Monarchs received power from God, must not be challenged 1500 through 1700s, absolute monarchs tried to impose their will across much of Europe, lands beyond In Spain, Charles struggled to keep empire under control Imposing Their Will 1516, teenaged Charles became King Charles I of Spain Inexperienced, but had one kingly trait—as member of ancient, powerful Hapsburg family, prepared to rule Absolute monarch, ruler whose power not limited by having to consult with nobles, common people or their representatives Kingly Trait The King Becomes Emperor
When Charles became king of Spain, he inherited the Low Countries of Belgium and the Netherlands, along with colonies in the Americas. 1519, throne of Holy Roman Empire became vacant Position elective; Charles borrowed money to buy votes Became Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Holdings expanded to parts of Italy, Austria, various German states So vast ‘the sun never set” over it Emperor Charles V Ruling vast territories not easy task for Charles Faced enemies on all sides— Ottoman Turks, French, rebellious German princes Also fought for religious control over Europe Wanted Europe to be Roman Catholic Growing Protestant movement threatened influence Enemies Everywhere Charles V and the Empire
Peace Agreement gave each German prince right to decide if his state would be Catholic or Protestant Charles’ vision of a Catholic Europe never became reality Constant warfare also brought Charles to brink of bankruptcy Confrontation 1521, Charles confronted Protestant leader Martin Luther directly In spite of Charles’ efforts, Protestants gained influence Rebellions against Catholic rulers spread After years of warfare, Charles V had to sign Peace of Augsburg
Success in Americas Charles V more successful in Americas than in Europe During reign, Spanish explorers claimed much of Americas for Spain Among explorers King Charles supported –Hernán Cortés, who conquered Aztec empire –Francisco de Coronado, who explored American Southwest region Silver and gold flowed from American colonies Brought Spain fabulous wealth
Brother took over Hapsburg holdings in Austria Son, Philip II, ruled Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, Spain’s colonies Charles V moved to monastery, dream of unified empire unfulfilled Imposing Their Will Frustrated by failures in Europe 1556, Charles V gave up thrones Decided to divide large empire Split between his brother and his son Relinquished Thrones Dividing the Empire
Draw Conclusions In what ways was Charles V successful as an emperor? In what ways was he unsuccessful?
From 1550 to 1650, Spanish golden age of artistic achievement Became known as the Golden Century One of most prominent painters, Greek Domenicos Theotocopoulos Became known as El Greco; style famous for elongated figures Much work religious, reflected Spain’s central role in Counter- Reformation Art Another Spanish painter, Diego Velázquez Created masterpieces portraying people of all social classes with great dignity Velázquez had privilege of being the court painter Court Painter Artistic Achievements
Writers Spanish golden age also produced fine writers Greatest was Miguel de Cervantes Colonial Writers Writers in Spain’s colonies produced works of merit Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz wrote poetry, prose, plays Cervantes Most famous work, Don Quixote de la Mancha About man caught between medieval, modern worlds Church Criticism Church officials criticized Sister Juana for some of her ideas She believed women had right to education Literature
Summarize What were some achievements of Spain’s Golden Century?
Philip II King of Spain (1556-1598) Inherited Spain from father. Sought to strengthen power by war, colonies, and the Catholic Reformation. Weakened Spain by incessant wars and poor economic choices. www.tudorhistory.org/ people/
Spain at peak of grandeur with reign of Philip II One reason—stream of gold and silver from colonies in Americas With wealth came power—but gold could not solve Spain’s problems King Philip II devout Catholic Saw himself as leader of Counter- Reformation Marriage to Queen Mary I of England chance to spread Catholicism Religion and Revolt Mary died before having heir to return England to Catholic faith Philip also wanted to secure position of Catholicism in European territories Catholicism in Territories Philip’s faith clashed with Calvinist Protestantism of northern Low Country provinces 1560s, bloody revolt began Revolt in the Low Countries Spain under Philip II
Dutch Revolt Dutch refused to declare allegiance to Philip To punish, Philip sent army under command of Duke of Alba Alba set up court –Known locally as Court of Blood –Tortured, executed thousands suspected of being rebels –Cruelties made situation worse; rebellion broke out anew Revolt dragged on for decades 1609, truce reached Seven northern provinces formed independent nation, the Netherlands Southern provinces remained in Spanish hands
English Aid to Dutch Dutch revolt deepened another rivalry, between Spain and England As fellow Protestants, England sent aid to Dutch rebels England’s assistance to Dutch infuriated Philip Invasion Planned King Philip II wanted to stop England from raiding ships, return England to Catholic Church Decided to invade England Attacks on Spanish Ships Philip also worried about English attacks on his ships England’s Queen Elizabeth I allowed ship captains to attack Spanish treasure ships, steal gold, silver for England Spain and England
Philip ordered navy to assemble great fleet, the Spanish Armada Totaled about 130 ships, 20,000 soldiers, sailors 1588, invincible fleet sailed into English channel Queen Elizabeth I rallied troops and prepared for attack Spanish packed ships with soldiers for land invasion Also planned to be joined by Spanish forces in Netherlands Faced fierce naval battles that severely damaged fleet Naval Battles Spanish ships fled in panic, disarray As damaged ships made way home, several were wrecked Armada Not Invincible Philip’s Armada
Relying on traditional agricultural economy, Spain’s economy lagged behind that of other countries. Spain declined as a major power. The defeat of the Armada was not the end for Spain, which recovered from the loss. But England remained Protestant, defiant, and undefeated. Spain’s real problems internal Philip’s government centralized He trusted no one Court riddled by factions, suspicion Government action practically came to standstill Internal Problems An Empire in Decline Philip spent wealth from Americas on constant warfare Borrowed money often; went bankrupt four times Prices driven up, inflation Spain did not develop industries Americans Join the Battle
Recall What were two events that caused problems for Spain?