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Emergency Action & Fire Prevention 29 CFR

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1 Emergency Action & Fire Prevention 29 CFR 1910.38
I. Speaker’s Notes: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to have written emergency action and fire prevention plans. These plans must contain information such as: Evacuation procedures Alarm systems Fire hazards and prevention Fire response procedures Fire protection equipment Training information Today’s class will cover all of these topics and more. Your role in an emergency is vital whether it is preventing a fire, reporting an incident, responding to the incident, or evacuating the area.

2 Are You Prepared? How would you react to a fire alarm at work?
Would you know your role if there was a major chemical spill? What if an earthquake or hurricane struck our community? I. Speaker’s Notes: No one expects an emergency situation to happen; fortunately, they are not common occurrences. But even if there’s just a minute possibility of an emergency where you work, you need to be prepared. Knowing what to do in the event of an emergency could save your life—as well as those of your co-workers. By the end of the class, you will know your role in an emergency and how to respond to an alarm.

3 Goals Potential hazards Emergency response Evacuation Quiz
I. Speaker’s Notes: Here are the topics we’ll discuss today: What are the potential hazards in the workplace? Fire, chemical spill, natural disasters. How should you respond to an emergency involving one of these hazards? What are the appropriate evacuation procedures? The quiz will help summarize what we talked about today and make sure everyone understood what we discussed. It is important that everyone is absolutely clear about his or her role in an emergency.

4 Fire Hazards and Prevention
Flammable/combustible liquids Combustible solids Machine overheating/electrical malfunction Welding and torch cutting Smoking I. Background for the Trainer: Describe the types of flammable and combustible liquids used by your facility and indicate where each is stored. What kind of combustible solids are found in your facility? Is there paper, cardboard, wood pallets, large quantities of dust? Do you have any machinery that requires a cooling system? If the cooling system failed, could the machine overheat? Make sure your company uses fire prevention techniques such as hot work permits when welding or torch cutting. Describe the smoking policy of your facility. Are there areas outside of the building where smoking is prohibited (i.e., near a propane storage tank)? II. Speaker’s Notes: Fires need three things to start and stay burning—fuel, oxygen, and an ignition source. If any one of these is missing, a fire will not exist. Each of the items described in the following will fit into the category of fuel or ignition source. Eliminate the hazard, and you increase the possibility of eliminating fires. Combustibles are solids and present a fire hazard because they can contribute to the start of a fire and also play a large role in spreading the fire. Overheated machines can also cause fires. Even your computer could overheat and melt down if the cooling fan failed but the computer remained on. Electrical malfunctions usually go hand in hand with machines overheating; a motor burns up, fuses are overloaded, wiring is frayed. Welding and torch cutting is an obvious fire hazard. Poor smoking habits is another obvious fire hazard.

5 Flammable Chemicals Don’t smoke Proper storage Proper dispensing
Read labels and MSDS Spill response I. Speaker’s Notes: Why do gasoline stations have “No Smoking” signs near the fuel pumps? Because gasoline and its vapors are highly flammable. For that same reason, we have “No Smoking” signs near our flammable liquids and gases. Don’t smoke when using these chemicals. Flammable and combustible liquids and gases must not be stored near heat sources such as hot machinery. Also, never weld or torch cut a drum that once contained a flammable liquid. There are still chemical vapors in the drum that could ignite and cause an explosion. When dispensing flammable chemicals, follow the procedures outlined in the chemical storage area and dispensing areas. Make sure the containers are properly grounded and bonded to discharge static electricity safely. The material safety data sheet (MSDS) contains information on proper storage, dispensing, flammable limits, reactivity hazards, and fire-fighting procedures. The flash point is the temperature at which a liquid chemical gives off enough vapors to ignite. A Lower flash point indicates a more flammable substance. Labels may also provide information similar to that on the MSDS, but probably not as detailed. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) labels are also a great tool in determining a chemicals fire hazard. A 4 in the red portion of the NFPA label indicates a severe hazard, 3 indicates a serious hazard, etc. Bring in a container of a flammable chemical to demonstrate the labels. Don’t attempt to clean a chemical spill unless you’ve been properly trained. Notify your supervisor immediately!

6 Electrical Fire Hazards
Overloaded electrical systems Frayed or damaged wiring Defective machinery or power tools I. Background for the Trainer: Does your company have a procedure for taking damaged equipment such as power tools to the maintenance department for repair? Describe the electrical fire hazards that are specific to your company. What do employees do if they encounter a damaged power tool or frayed wiring? What are your company’s policies and procedures? II. Speaker’s Notes: Have you ever overloaded an outlet with Christmas lights? You can also overload a circuit by putting too much electrical load on the wires. If you have to use extension cords, make sure they are rated for the load you plan to put on them. Have you ever blown a fuse when you turned on a hair dryer? You just came close to overloading the electrical circuit; however, instead of burning up a wire, the protective fuse popped instead. Have you ever put too much load on a motor and tried to make it do more than it is capable of doing? You are overloading the motor, which could cause it to overheat and create a hazardous situation. Do you look for damaged wiring before plugging in an appliance? A toaster or coffee machine could easily overheat if the electrical cord were damaged. Never use a power tool that has a damaged electrical cord.

7 Housekeeping Control flammable and combustible materials so they do not contribute to the ignition or expansion of a fire Keep exits clear and maintain the accessibility to fire response equipment I. Background for the Trainer: Describe your facility’s largest housekeeping concern. Is it combustible dusts such as sawdust, metal grindings, lint, or even grain dust? Do cardboard boxes or wooden crates accumulate in your workplace? Do oily or solvent-soaked rags pile up? II. Speaker’s Notes: Housekeeping plays a critical role in fire prevention. Keeping your workplace clean and organized not only prevents the ignition and spread of a fire, it also helps keep exits clear and fire response equipment available. Discuss housekeeping issues that are specific to your company. Keep all dusts under control, particularly around motors and hot machinery. Dispose of rags contaminated with oils or solvents in appropriate metal containers. Don’t allow combustible materials such as cardboard, paper, or wood to accumulate. Keep exits clear. Keep access to emergency response equipment clear.

8 Chemical Spill Hazards
Chemical types and locations Spotting a leak or spill Specific chemical hazards I. Background for the Trainer: Describe the types of chemicals used at your facility. Are they located in tanks, totes, drums, etc.? Where are they located? Provide a map so employees can picture the locations of chemicals (if available). Are areas of the facility restricted to certain personnel because of the hazardous chemicals used? Does your facility have chemicals that are highly dangerous or toxic? Do some chemicals give off toxic gases? Emphasize the dangers of these chemicals, where they are located, and how a leak is most easily detected. II. Speaker’s Notes: This slide is not intended to replace hazard communication training; however, it is important for employees to understand the potential for chemical spills or leaks, how to spot them and what to do. How can you spot spills or leaks? A dripping pipe or a drum with liquid around its base are signs of potential leaks. Describe the color, odor, or viscosity of certain chemicals located in your facility so employees can recognize a leak.

9 Natural Disasters Earthquake Flooding Tornado/hurricane
I. Speaker’s Notes: The best way to manage a natural disaster is to have a plan in place that can be implemented when an event occurs. In an earthquake, seek protective cover (i.e., under a table or in a doorway). Once the earthquake has subsided, evacuate the building. Earthquakes may result in structural damage to the building, equipment, or chemical storage tanks. Shut off natural gas and electrical services. Do not re-enter the building until the “all-clear” signal has been given by the evacuation coordinator. For flooding: Have flood shields or sandbags on hand. Board up windows. Raise machinery or stored goods off the ground or remove from a basement. Shut off gas and close valves to any tanks. In a tornado or hurricane: Board up windows. Bring in loose items from outside or secure them. Inspect roof coverings to make sure they are secure. Have radios, flashlights, and other emergency items available. Take shelter.

10 Goals Potential hazards Emergency response Evacuation Quiz
I. Speaker’s Notes: Are there any questions on the potential hazards associated with the your company? Now that we know about potential hazards, let’s discuss how to handle emergencies arising out of the hazards we have discussed.

11 Fire Response Notification or alarm Retrieve a fire extinguisher
Assess the situation Call for outside emergency assistance if necessary If fighting a fire, continually evaluate for the necessity of evacuation I. Background for the Trainer: Briefly describe the notification process at your company. Details will be discussed in a future slide. Are all employees permitted to use fire-fighting equipment, or is that limited to specifically trained personnel in a fire brigade or squad? Assessing the situation. What is your company policy on this step? Who is allowed to assess a fire or emergency situation? Can the employee, or is it limited to supervisors or members of a fire brigade or squad? Who can call for outside emergency assistance such as the fire department? Is this limited only to supervisors or members of a fire brigade or squad? II. Speaker’s Notes: When a fire is discovered, your first action should be notification. This can be done by yelling, phoning, paging, or triggering an alarm. Retrieving a fire extinguisher or fire hose is very important. Even if you are not trained to use the extinguisher or are not comfortable using the extinguisher, go get one. Bring it back to the scene so someone else or your supervisor can use the equipment. Then if you are not comfortable, stand back from the scene or evacuate if instructed by the supervisor or incident commander at the scene. When fighting a fire, the supervisor or incident commander will continually evaluate the situation to make sure it is still safe to fight the fire.

12 Alarms Yell for help Main alarm system Backup alarm
Fire suppression system will automatically signal an alarm to the fire department I. Background for the Trainer: What are your company’s preferred means of reporting an emergency? What is your main alarm system? Does your company have wall mounted alarms, a public address (PA) system, radios, or phones? Can the alarm be heard in all areas of your facility? What is your company’s backup alarm? Does it work if the electrical power is out? Does your company have distinctive alarms for specific emergencies? For example, one alarm indicates total evacuation, another indicates a localized fire, while another indicates a localized chemical spill. II. Speaker’s Notes: Yelling for help is probably the most natural and instinctive way to report a fire. Most companies’ fire suppression systems are connected to security agencies that notify the fire department if the system experiences a flow or a drop in pressure. This way the fire department will be on its way if a sprinkler head discharges, for example.

13 Emergency Numbers Fire Department Police Department Ambulance
Medical Clinic Hospital I. Background for the Trainer: Where are these emergency numbers posted? Are they next to phones out in the facility or in control rooms or supervisor’s offices? Are employees authorized to call these emergency numbers themselves or does a supervisor or lead have to make the call? What is your company’s policy? II. Speaker’s Notes: These are the phone numbers that should be readily available in all areas of the company: (Provide numbers either verbally or hand out a photo-copy of important numbers) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

14 Extinguishing Equipment
Portable extinguisher Fire hose Fire suppression systems I. Background for the Trainer: What types of fire-fighting equipment does your facility have? Describe the locations of extinguishers and fire hoses (possibly bring a map showing their locations). Who is allowed (and therefore going to be trained) to use fire-fighting equipment? All employees, just a select group of employees, or only members of a trained fire brigade? Does your company plan to have additional fire-fighting equipment training, such as allowing employees to discharge extinguishers onto a pretend fire, or handle a fully pressurized fire hose? Discuss such drills with your local fire department because they may be willing to come out and help with the training. Who is responsible for maintaining the preparedness of fire-extinguishing equipment? How often is equipment inspected at your facility? II. Speaker’s Notes: If expected to use fire-fighting equipment against a real fire, then you must receive initial and annual training on the use of the equipment. Don’t fight a large fire or a structural fire unless trained to do so as a member of a fire brigade that meets OSHA requirements in 29 CFR Only fight “incipient” stage fires. These are fires that are just beginning to appear or just coming into existence and can be controlled by the use of portable fire extinguishers.

15 Extinguisher Types A - For combustibles such as trash, wood, or paper
B - For flammable liquids or gases C - For electrical fires D - For combustible metals like magnesium I. Background for the Trainer: Where are the extinguishers located within your facility? Is the travel distance within 50 or 75 feet as required? The key phrase is travel distance. In other words, make sure extinguishers are not blocked by equipment, storage racks, or product so that the employee must travel 100 feet around these things to reach an extinguisher that is normally 25 feet away. II. Speaker’s Notes: OSHA requires fire extinguishers to be maintained within certain distances from every point within a facility (29 CFR ). However, your local fire department may have different requirements. “A” extinguishers must be located so that the travel distance for employees to the extinguisher is 75 feet or less. “B” extinguishers must be located so that the travel distance for employees to the extinguisher is 50 feet or less. “C” extinguishers are grouped with either an “A” or “B” class extinguisher, so its location is based on the pattern required by the extinguisher class it is grouped in.

16 Extinguisher Use Pull the pin Aim at the base of the fire
Squeeze the trigger Sweep back and forth I. Background for the Trainer: Bring an extinguisher to show the class. Let the employees hold the extinguisher if they wish. Ask them if they have ever had to use an extinguisher before. What was the situation, and how did they and others around them react? II. Speaker’s Notes: These four steps can easily be remembered by thinking about the word PASS. Most extinguishers are emptied in less than a minute, so aim carefully.

17 Fire Fighting Dangers Flame Heat Smoke Toxic vapors Suffocation
Explosions I. Background for the Trainer: What are the specific hazards of fighting fires in your facility? Do you have foam, rubber, or chemicals that will give off toxic gases when they burn? What about explosions? Do you have aerosol cans or containers of flammable chemicals that may explode when exposed to heat? Do you have some parts of your facility where fighting fires is too dangerous due to the chemicals or toxic vapors that may be given off? II. Speaker’s Notes: Obviously, there are dangers when fighting a fire, no matter what size. The typical fire hazards are flame, heat, and smoke inhalation. Other potential hazards are toxic vapors, suffocation, and explosions.

18 Chemical Spills Evacuate the area
Notify a supervisor or the emergency response team Remove ignition sources (if safe to do so) I. Background for the Trainer: This training session is not intended to teach employees how to respond to a spill or leak. The intent is to make sure employees know how to spot a spill or leak, how to report it, and how to evacuate the area. This is also called “awareness level” training. First of all, have employees discuss what types of spills or leaks might occur at your company. Could a drum be punctured by a forklift? Could a tank or pipe rupture? What kind of chemicals could be leaked in volumes that would require evacuation? Discuss your company’s specific emergency response plan and the procedures that employees must understand to spot a spill, report a spill, and evacuate. Who is on the chemical spill emergency response team? Are there different notification procedures or alarms for chemical spills than there are for a fire or other emergency? II. Speaker’s Notes: If a chemical spill occurs, don’t attempt to clean it unless you’re part of an emergency response team. Immediately evacuate the area and help others get out. Notify a supervisor or the emergency response team. Remove ignition sources only if it is safe to do so.

19 Goals Potential hazards Emergency response Evacuation Quiz
I. Speaker’s Notes: Does everyone understand how to respond to an emergency? Are there any questions about your role in this response? Now we need to discuss everyone's role in an evacuation.

20 Evacuation Assignments
Evacuation coordinators Head count Medical Shut down equipment Fire/chemical responders Evacuate I. Background for the Trainer: Who are the designated responders that will remain in the building? If all employees are trained and permitted to fight incipient fires, then the employees in the department where the fire is located will stay to battle the fire if safe to do so. Emergency coordinators are designated in your emergency action and fire prevention plan. Who are they? What are their roles in an evacuation? Do they sweep the building to make sure everyone is out? Do they monitor the progress of the personnel who are responding to the fire or chemical spill? Do they call the fire department? Who will conduct the head count at the assembly area? Human resources, supervisors, leads? Who is trained at your facility in first aid and CPR? Will one of these people bring a first-aid kit to the assembly area? Remember, their responsibilities are limited to their level of training until professional help arrives Who is responsible for helping disabled employees evacuate? Do you have an office employee who is wearing a cast on his leg and needs crutches? How will he walk down a flight of stairs to evacuate? II. Speaker’s Notes: During an evacuation, every employee will have a specific role. All employees should shut down their equipment before evacuating, if safe to do so. Some employees may stay behind to shut down critical operations. All other employees evacuate out the nearest safe exit and gather at the designated assembly area. Remember, evacuation does not mean that you can sit in your car and listen to the radio, or go run some errands. Evacuation means going to the assembly area so the head count person knows that you are safely out of the building.

21 Evacuation Preparedness
Become familiar with nearest exit and keep it clear Participate in drills and provide feedback Become familiar with evacuation coordinators and head-count personnel I. Background for the Trainer: This might be a good place to take out an evacuation map and go over the assembly areas with employees. Possibly insert a slide here with the map scanned in or a picture showing the assembly area. II. Speaker’s Notes: It is extremely important to keep all fire exits clear. Drills will be conducted annually. It is important for you to provide feedback on drills. Did you hear the alarm? Were exits clear? Any other important details? These drills are evaluated, the results reviewed, plans are modified, and employees are retrained.

22 Evacuation Procedures
Recognize the evacuation signal and listen for instructions Shut down equipment using the emergency stop Go directly to the nearest safe exit Proceed to the assembly area. I. Background for the Trainer: Now it is time to conduct a mock table top evacuation drill. What do the employees in this class do when they hear the alarm? What are their specific roles? Make sure every employee understands the actions required of them. Will some employees need to stay behind and shut down critical equipment that cannot be shut down with just an emergency stop? If so, mention this and make sure those employees staying behind are trained. II. Speaker’s Notes: It’s important to follow these steps during an evacuation. This will keep the procedure organized and ensure everyone gets out safely.

23 Goals Potential hazards Emergency response Evacuation Quiz
I. Speaker’s Notes: Does everyone understand their role in an evacuation? Time for a summary and the quiz.

24 Summary Understand how to prevent emergencies
Understand emergency response Only use fire-fighting equipment if trained Know your role in an evacuation Apply this information (also applies at home) Ask your supervisor I. Speaker’s Notes: Inform your supervisor about additional hazards that may not be known to management. Remember that this information applies at home as well. Discuss fire and chemical hazards with your family, too. Ask your supervisor if you have any questions or concerns about hazards in your work area, responding to the specific emergencies in your department, or your role in an evacuation.

25 Quiz 1. Housekeeping is only important because it keeps the facility looking nice. True or False 2. The class A extinguisher is used for putting out combustible metal fires. True or False 3. Name two potential fire hazards in your workspace __________________ and __________________. 4. If someone is on fire, it is best to use an extinguisher on the person. True or False 5. Describe the first two things you should do if you spot a fire: ______________ and ______________. I. Background for the Trainer: Remind employees that the quiz is to encourage further discussion and to help you, the trainer, ensure that everyone understands what was discussed.

26 Quiz (cont.) 6. What is the most dangerous habit to have when working with flammable chemicals? 7. To use a fire extinguisher; P ______________, A__________, S___________, S___________. 8. Name the evacuation coordinator and head-count person for your department. 9. Prior to evacuating out the nearest exit, you should _______________________________. 10. Which type of natural disaster is most likely to strike your community, and how are you and your company prepared for it?

27 Quiz Answers 1. False. Housekeeping prevents accumulation of materials that may ignite or contribute to a fire. 2. False. Class A is for combustibles like wood or paper. For combustible metals use class D. 3. Flammable liquids, piles of rags or boxes, poor smoking habits, frayed electrical cords, etc. 4. False. Help the person stop, drop, and roll. 5. Notify someone, such as a supervisor, and retrieve fire equipment, such as an extinguisher.

28 Quiz Answers (cont.) 6. Smoking is a very dangerous habit when working with flammable chemicals. 7. Pull the pin, Aim at the base of the fire, Squeeze the trigger, Sweep back and forth. 8. The evacuation coordinator and headcount person for each department are defined in the emergency action plan. 9. Shut down equipment using the emergency stop button. 10. Discuss company and personal plans for responding to natural disasters in your area.

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