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Europe and Russia: Physical Geography

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Presentation on theme: "Europe and Russia: Physical Geography"— Presentation transcript:

1 Europe and Russia: Physical Geography
World Geography Europe and Russia: Physical Geography Unit 5

2 Land and Water What are the main physical features of Europe and Russia? How have the physical features of Europe and Russia affected where and how people live?

3 Size and Location Europe and Russia are parts of Eurasia—the world’s largest landmass that is made up of two continents, Europe and Asia. About one fourth of Russia is in Europe and the rest is in Asia. The Ural Mountains are the dividing line between Europe and Asia.

4 Europe is a small continent that has 47 different countries.
Each country is the size of an average state in the United States. Russia is the largest country in the world. It is almost twice the size of Canada or the United States. Much of Europe and nearly all of Russia is farther north than the United States.

5 Major Landforms of Europe
Europe: Land Regions

6 Major Landforms of Russia
Russia lies on the Arctic Ocean. Europe and the Western Part of Russia share the North European Plain. Russia’s largest cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg, are in this region. More people live in this region than in any other part of Russia.

7 On the eastern border of the European Plain are the Ural Mountains.
To the east of the Urals is the Asian part of Russia—a region known as Siberia. Siberia makes up about 75 percent of Russian territory, but it has only 20 percent of Russia’s people because of its harsh climate.

8 Farther east is the Central Siberian Plateau.
Continuing east into Siberia from the Ural Mountains is the largest plain in the world—the West Siberian Plain. Farther east is the Central Siberian Plateau. And even farther east, are the East Siberian Uplands which include more than 20 active volcanoes

9 The Rivers of Europe and Russia
High in the Alps in Switzerland, melting glaciers create two streams that combine to form the Rhine River. The Rhine travels 865 miles from Switzerland to the Netherlands and the North Sea. It serves as a major highway. Canals and tributaries connect it to the furthest reaches of Western Europe.

10 The longest river on the European continent is Russia’s Volga.
It travels through western Russia and empties into the Caspian Sea. The Volga has many tributaries and canals. They link the Volga to the Arctic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. The Volga freezes for most of its length for three winter months of each year and is not navigable then.

11 Climate and Vegetation
How do oceans and mountains affect climate in Europe and Russia? What different climates and kinds of vegetation do Europe and Russia have?

12 A Wide Range of Climates
The climates in part of Russia and Europe vary greatly. Areas that are near an ocean or a sea have fairly mild weather year round. Areas that are far from the ocean often have extreme weather. Winds blowing across the ocean pick up a great deal of moisture which they drop in the form of rain when they blow over land.

13 Mountains also affect the amount of rainfall in an area.
Areas east of mountains receive heavy rainfall and areas west of mountains receive lighter rainfall.

14 The Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Current

15 Major Climate Zones of Europe and Russia
Much of northwestern Europe has a marine west coast climate. The North Atlantic Current helps make the climate mild all year. Moisture-carrying winds from the Atlantic Ocean make these areas rainy. The climate region that surrounds the Mediterranean Sea has summers that are hot and dry and winters that are mild and rainy.

16 Major Climate Zones of Russia
Irkutsk, Russia is located on a huge sub-arctic climate zone. Here, summers are short and winters are long and cold. The northernmost areas of Russia have a tundra climate. On the warmest days, temperatures rarely get above 40°F.

17 The Vegetation of Europe and Russia
The natural vegetation of Europe is forest. But, most of the forests have been cleared to make way for farms, factories, and cities. Northern Europe still has coniferous forests. The central and southern parts of the North European Plain were once covered by grasslands. But, the grasslands have also been cleared to allow for farming.

18 The Vegetation of Russia
Russia has three vegetation zones: the tundra, the forests, and the grasslands. The tundra and forest zones extend across Siberia. In the tundra, winters last up to nine months and the ground is permafrost. Russia has many forests, including the taiga. The Russian grasslands are called steppes. The soil there is good for farming.

19 Natural Resources What are the major natural resources of Europe and Russia? How do Europe and Russia differ in their use of natural resources?

20 Resources of Western Europe

21 The most important natural resources in Europe include fertile soil, water, and fuels.
Much of Western Europe is covered with fertile soil which helps farmers produce abundant crops. Water is needed to drink and to nourish crops. It can also be used to produce electricity. Fossil fuels provide a source of energy for industries. Europe is a leading world industrial power.

22 Resources of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe has similar resources to those of Western Europe. Silesia, the area where Poland, the Czech Republic, and Germany come together, has large deposits of coal. Silesia is a major industrial center.

23 Ukraine, a large country in Eastern Europe, has coal deposits, also.
It has several other fuel resources—oil and natural gas. Its most important resource is its soil. Therefore, farming is an extremely important activity in Ukraine.

24 Resources of Russia

25 Russia has not developed its natural resources as much as Western Europe.
Russia is one of the largest producers of oil in the world. It also has the largest reserves. Scientists estimate that Russia has about one third of the world’s coal reserves. Russia also has the world’s greatest reserves of iron ore, which is used to make steel. Most of Russia’s deposits of oil, natural gas, and coal are located in Siberia; retrieving the resources is difficult.

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