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Integumentary System.

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Presentation on theme: "Integumentary System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integumentary System

2 Integumentary System Epidermis (epithelial tissue)
Dermis (connective tissue) Hypodermis (not part of the skin)



5 Hypodermis subcutaneous layer (underneath the skin)

6 Hypodermis contains areolar and adipose tissue

7 Hypodermis attaches skin to underlying tissues and organs

8 Hypodermis Conatains pacinian corpuscles ( sensitive to pressure / looks like an onion)

9 Epidermis Stratified Squamous epithelium 4 different types of cells
5 layers

10 Types of Cells in Epidermis
Keratinocytes Melanocytes Langerhans Merkel

11 Keratinocytes 90% of epidermal cells

12 Keratinocytes produce the protein keratin which protects the skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes, and chemicals

13 Keratinocytes produce lamellar granules which produce a water repellant sealant

14 Melanocytes 8 % of epidermal cells

15 Melanocytes Produces the pigment melanin

16 Melanocytes Transfers melanin granules to keratinocytes

17 Melanocytes In keratinocytes the melanin granules acts like an umbrella over the DNA in order to protect it from UV light

18 Langerhans migrate from red bone marrow to epidermis

19 Langerhans involved in immune response

20 Merkel sensitive to touch

21 Merkel located in stratum basale

22 Merkel Have contact with the flattened process of a sensory neuron (Merkel disc)

23 5 layers of Epidermis Stratum Basale Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Granulosum Stratum Lucidum Stratum Corneum

24 Stratum Basale Deepest layer of the epidermis


26 Stratum Basale Single layer of cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes


28 Stratum Basale Nuclei large

29 Stratum Basale Also contains some melanocytes, merkel cells, and langerhans cells

30 Stratum Spinosum 8 to 10 layers of squamous shaped keratinocytes


32 Stratum Spinosum Has a large nucleus

33 Stratum Spinosum Appear spiny underneath microscope

34 Stratum Spinosum Some langerhans cells and melanocytes

35 Stratum Granulosum 3 to five layer of squamous keratinocytes


37 Stratum Granulosum Undergoing apoptosis (cell death)

38 Stratum Granulosum Nuclei disappearing

39 Stratum Granulosum Contains protein keratohyalin which converts tonofilaments into keratin

40 Stratum Granulosum Secretes lamellar granules which fills the spaces between stratum granulousum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum

41 Stratum Lucidum Only in thick skin


43 Stratum Lucidum 3 to 5 layers of clear, dead, squamous keratinocytes

44 Stratum Lucidum Contain keratin

45 Stratum Corneum 25 to 30 layers


47 Stratum Corneum Dead squamous keratinocytes

48 Stratum Corneum Contain keratin

49 Stratum Corneum Sometimes forms callus (the stratum corneum is abnormally thick)

50 Dermis Two Regions Papillary Region Reticular Region

51 Papillary Region Contains areolar connective tissue with fine elastic fibers


53 Papillary Region 20 percent or one fifth of dermis

54 Papillary Region Contains Meisner corpuscles ( sensitive to touch)

55 Papillary Region Contains dermal papillae (small,fingerlike projections that indent the epidermis and some contain capillary loops)


57 Reticular Region Contains dense irregular connective tissue with collagen fibers and course elastic fibers

58 Reticular Region Contain some adipocytes, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands



61 Skin Color Melanin Carotene Hemoglobin

62 Melanin Number of melanocytes doesn’t vary among people

63 Melanin Differences in skin color can be attributed to the amount that these melanocytes produce

64 Melanin Melanocytes most commonly found in the epidermis of the penis, nipples, face and limbs

65 Melanin Freckles and age spot (accumulations of melanin)

66 Carotene Yellow-orange pigment Precursor to vitamin A

67 Carotene Found in stratum corneum, fatty areas of dermis, and hypodermis

68 Hemoglobin Protein in rbc’s that carries oxygen
Found in capillaries in blood

69 Albinos Contain melanocytes, but are unable to produce melanin
Inherited Melanin is absent in hair, eyes, and skin

70 Vitiligo Irregular white spots Due to loss of melanocytes
Antibodies in body attack melanocytes

71 Types of Skin Thin Skin Thick Skin

72 Thin Skin Covers all surfaces except palms, fingertips, and soles


74 Thin Skin Lacks stratum lucidum Thin stratum spinosum and corneum

75 Thin Skin Lack epidermal ridges (fingerprints)

76 Thin Skin Fewer sweat glands Fewer sensory receptors

77 Thin Skin Contains hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, and sebaceous (oil) gland


79 Thick Skin Located on palms, fingertips, and soles


81 Thick Skin Stratum Lucidum Thicker stratum spinosum and corneum

82 Thick Skin Contains epidermal ridges Contains more sweat glands

83 Thick Skin Lacks hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and arector pili muscles

84 Accessory Structures Hair Glands Nails

85 Hair Shaft Superficial portion of hair

86 Hair Root Penetrates into dermis

87 Hair Root and Shaft contain three layers
Inner medulla(may lack in thin hair), cortex (contains pigment granules), and cuticle

88 Hair Hair Follicle Surrounds the root of the hair
Contains an external root sheath (continuation of epidermis) and internal root sheath (produced by the matrix)

89 Hair Bulb Contains papilla of hair (areolar connective tissue and blood vessels to nourish hair) Contains matrix (produce new hairs)



92 Hair Sebaceous glands and arrector pili muscle associated with hairs

93 Hair Arrector pili muscle responsible for “goose bumps”



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