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Paths to War Ch 19 Sec 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Paths to War Ch 19 Sec 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Paths to War Ch 19 Sec 1

2 Review Mid-1930s Germany and Italy focused on military conquest
Major democracies distracted by Depression Countries look to League of Nations to maintain peace Japan moves towards military rule

3 European Aggressors on the March
European Fascists encouraged by League of Nations failure in Japan Mussolini invades Ethiopia Hitler violates Treaty of Versailles Civil War Erupts in Spain

4 Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia
Mussolini invades Ethiopia in Oct 1935 Spears and swords no match for planes, tanks, guns, and gas Ethiopian emperor appeals to League Condemns action but does nothing to help British let Italians use Suez Canal British and French hoped to keep peace in Europe


6 Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty
Provisions of Treaty Limited size of German army Created Rhineland Buffer between Germany and France Hitler ignored provisions Moved troops into Rhineland (March 7, 1936)

7 Britain responds Appeasement? Giving in to an aggressor to keep peace
Let Hitler build army and invade Rhineland Would keep France and Britain out of war with Germany Hitler admitted he would have backed down if they challenged him

8 Rhineland occupation was turning point
Strengthened Hitler’s power and prestige Shifted balance of power in Germany’s favor France and Belgium open to attack Hitler encouraged by weak response Sped up expansion ideas

9 Axis Powers Mussolini seeks alliance with Hitler
Oct 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis November 1936 – Germany makes agreement with Japan – Comintern Pact Germany, Italy and Japan become Axis Powers

10 Civil War in Spain 1936 – Francisco Franco leads revolt in Spain
Favored Fascism Begins three year civil war Hitler and Mussolini send aid to Franco and Nationalists Troops, tanks, airplanes Western democracies remained neutral 1939 – Franco becomes Fascist dictator of Spain

11 Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace
US Follows Isolationist Policy Belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided Entry into WWI was a mistake 1935 Neutrality Acts Banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war

12 The German Reich Expands
Nov Hitler announces plan for Third Reich Wanted to absorb control of Austria and Czechoslovakia Violated Treaty of Versailles Forbade union of Austria and Germany

13 March 1938 Hitler invades and annexes Austria
September 1938 demands Sudetenland be given to Germany Western border regions of Czechoslovakia Czechs refuse and ask French for help


15 Munich Conference September 29, 1938 - Germany, France, GB, Italy
British PM Neville Chamberlain believes he can maintain peace by giving in Britain and France agree Hitler can take Sudetenland Hitler agreed to respect Czech borders 6 months later Hitler invades Czechoslovakia



18 Nazis and Soviets USSR approached to help Britain and France stop Hitler Hitler bargained with Stalin Publicly pledged never to attack one another Offered eastern Poland and the Baltic states Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact signed August 23, 1939




22 Japan Seeks an Empire 1920s – Japanese gov’t more democratic
1922 signs treaty with China to respect borders 1928 signs Kellogg-Briand Pact War no longer used to solve problems

23 Weaknesses of Democracy
Limits on power of prime minister and cabinet Civilian leaders had little control over military Military leaders reported only to emperor

24 Militarists Take Control of Japan
Japanese blame gov’t for Great Depression Military leaders wanted traditional control given to military Made emperor symbol of state power Keeping Hirohito won popular support for army leaders

25 Extreme Nationalists Economic problems solved through expansion into Pacific

26 Japan Invades Manchuria
Northeast province of China Rich in iron and coal 1931 seized by Japanese army Set up puppet government Built mines and factories League of Nations protested Japan left league in 1933

27 Japan Invades China 1937 – Border dispute sets off war w/China
Chinese military no match for Japanese Chinese military larger Japanese better equipped and better trained Chinese focused on Communist threat from within


29 The New Asian Order Japan would establish new system of control in Asia Japan, Manchuria, China Japan guiding Asian neighbors to prosperity

30 Plan to conquer Siberia
1930s - Japan begins to cooperate w/Nazis Believed the two countries would launch attack on USSR Nonaggression Pact changed that idea Japan looks to Southeast Asia for empire

31 Japan Launches Attack Attack to South would anger colonial empires
Mainly US 1940 – Japan demands right to exploit economic resources in French Indochina US objects Would apply economic sanctions unless Japan withdrew

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