Presentation on theme: " The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebrum controls."— Presentation transcript:
The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebrum controls voluntary movement, speech, intelligence, memory, emotion, and sensory processing.
The cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes: The frontal lobe (double face-palm) is associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving. The parietal lobe (hands on head) is associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli.
The occipital lobe (getting comfortable) is associated with visual processing. The temporal lobe (“I’m not listening” ) is associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech.
The corpus callosum is the part of the mind that allows communication between the two hemispheres of the brain. It is responsible for transmitting neural messages between both the right and left hemispheres.
The limbic system, often referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum. This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.
The thalamus is often referred to as the switchboard of the brain. Almost all sensory information enters this structure where neurons send that information to it’s final destination. Axons from every sensory system (except olfaction) synapse here as the last relay site before the information reaches the cerebral cortex.
The hypothalamus is involved in functions including homeostasis, emotion, thirst, hunger, circadian rhythms, and control of the autonomic nervous system. In addition, it controls the pituitary.
The amygdala is located in the temporal lobe; involved in memory, emotion, and fear.
The hippocampus is part of the temporal lobe. This part of the brain is important for learning and memory, for converting short term memory to more permanent memory, and for recalling spatial relationships in the world about us.
The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.
The brain stem is located underneath the limbic system. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Scientists say that this is the "simplest" part of human brains because animals' entire brains, such as reptiles, resemble our brain stem. The brain stem is made of the midbrain, pons, and medulla.
The midbrain, or mesencephalon, is involved in functions such as vision, hearing, eye movement, and body movement. The anterior part has the cerebral peduncle, which is a huge bundle of axons traveling from the cerebral cortex through the brain stem and these fibers (along with other structures) are important for voluntary motor function.
The pons is part of the metencephalon in the hindbrain. It is involved in motor control and sensory analysis. For example, information from the ear first enters the brain in the pons. It has parts that are important for the level of consciousness and for sleep. Some structures within the pons are linked to the cerebellum, thus are involved in movement and posture.
The medulla oblongata is responsible for maintaining vital body functions, such as breathing and heart rate.
Broca's area is usually associated with the production of language, or language outputs. Wernicke's area, which is located in the temporal lobe, is associated with the processing of words that we hear being spoken, or language inputs.