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© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Preview The Nervous System Brain: Structure and Function Brain Damage and Plasticity Genetics, Evolution, and Behavior Application: Health and Wellness
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Nervous System Neuroscience and Neuroscientists Characteristics of the nervous system: Complexity Integration Adaptability Electrochemical transmission
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Nervous System: Pathways Afferent Nerves Carry information spinal cord and brain Efferent Nerves Carry information muscles Reflex Arc: Afferent nerve Interneuron Efferent nerve
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Nervous System: Divisions
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Nervous System: Divisions Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Somatic nervous system Sensory nerves and muscular activity Autonomic nervous system – internal organs Sympathetic nervous system – arouses Parasympathetic nervous system – calms
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurons: Structure Brain: Approximately 100 billion neurons Glial Cells: Provide support and nutrition Specialized Cell Structure Cell body Dendrites Axon Myelin sheath
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurons: Structure
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Neural Impulse Resting Potential Stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron Action Potential Ion gates cause depolarization Brief, positive electrical charge: firing All-or-None Principle Once initiated, it cannot be stopped
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Synapses and Neurotransmitters Synaptic Transmission Neurochemical communication Action potential (electrical impulse) is converted into a chemical signal Synapses Space between terminal buttons and the receiving neuron’s cell body or dendrites
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Synapses and Neurotransmitters
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters either excite or inhibit Acetylcholine Muscle actions, learning, memory Alzheimer’s disease: ↓ Ach levels Nicotine: ↑ Ach levels GABA – inhibitory functions Anxiety: ↓ GABA levels
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurotransmitters Norepinephrine Stress and mania: ↑ Norepinephrine levels Depression: ↓ Norepinephrine levels Regulates sleep states in conjunction with ACh Dopamine Stimulant drugs: ↑ Dopamine levels Parkinson’s disease: ↓ Dopamine levels
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurotransmitters Serotonin Regulation of sleep, mood, attention, learning Depression: ↓ Serotonin levels Prozac ↑ Serotonin levels Endorphins Endogenous (natural) opiates Mediate feelings of pleasure and pain
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurotransmitters Oxytocin Both a hormone and a neurotransmitter Related to onset of lactation in new mothers Related to attachment / emotional bonds Drugs and Neurotransmitters Agonist – mimics or enhances NT effects Antagonist – blocks effects of NT
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Studying the Brain Lesioning Naturally occurring or induced Staining Electrical Recording Electroencephalogram (EEG) Single-unit recording Brain damage, sleep, epilepsy, happiness
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Brain Imaging X-Ray CT Scan PET MRI fMRI
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Brain: Structure and Function Hindbrain, Midbrain, and Forebrain Hindbrain Medulla – control breathing, regulate reflexes Cerebellum – movement, coordination Pons – sleep, arousal
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Brain: Structure and Function Midbrain Reticular Formation Stereotyped behavior patterns like walking Brain Stem Alertness, breathing, heart rate, blood pressure
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Brain: Structure and Function
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Brain: Structure and Function Forebrain (continued next slide) Limbic System – memory and emotion Amygdala Emotional awareness and expression Hippocampus Formation and storage of memories Thalamus Relay station for much sensory information
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Brain: Structure and Function Forebrain (continued) Basal Ganglia Coordination of voluntary movements Hypothalamus Eating, drinking, sexual behaviors Emotion, stress, reward
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobe – Vision Temporal Lobe – Hearing, language processing, memory Frontal Lobe – Intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles Parietal Lobe - Spatial location, attention, motor control
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Cerebral Cortex
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Somatosensory and Motor Cortex Somatosensoy Cortex Located in the parietal lobe Processes info about body sensations Motor Cortex Located in the frontal lobe Processes info about voluntary movements Point-to-point Mapping
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Somatosensory and Motor Cortex
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Split-Brain Research Corpus Callosum Large bundle of axons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain Hemispheric Specialization of Function Right hemisphere Spatial perception, visual recognition, emotion Left hemisphere Verbal processing, speech, grammar
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Split-Brain Research
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Intersection: Happy Brains? Happiness: Prefrontal Lobe Asymmetry Positive emotional responses More left prefrontal lobe activity Negative emotional responses More right prefrontal lobe activity Caution: Correlational Research Mindfulness (Awareness) Meditation
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Endocrine System Set of glands that regulate the flow or hormones into the bloodstream Relatively slow communication system Interconnected with the nervous system Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Brain Damage and Plasticity Recovery from brain damage depends on Age of the individual Extent of the damage Repairing the damaged brain Collateral sprouting Substitution of function Neurogenesis Brain tissue implants
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Genetics and Behavior Chromosomes, DNA, and Genes The Dominant-Recessive Genes Principle The Human Genome Project Behavior Genetics and Adoption Studies Fraternal and identical twins
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Genes and the Environment The “Nature versus Nurture” Debate Nature describes one’s genetic potential Genotype – genetic heritage Nurture the expression of that potential Phenotype – observable characteristics Both physical and psychological characteristics
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Application: Health and Wellness Stressors – circumstances and events that threaten individuals and/or tax their coping abilities Stress – our response to those stressors Effects of acute and chronic stress Cognitive restructuring and self-talk
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Discuss the nature and basic function of the nervous system. Explain what neurons are and how they process information. Identify the brain’s levels and structures and summarize the function of those structures.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Identify the endocrine system and describe how it affects behavior. Describe the brain’s capacity for recovery and repair. Explain how genetics increases understanding of behavior. Describe the role of the biological foundations of human psychology in the body’s stress response.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary The Nervous System Structure and function of the nervous systems Structure of a neruon Electrochemical communication Neurotransmitters and their effects Brain: Structure and Function Brain imaging techniques Hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain Cerebral lobes and functions
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Brain Damage and Plasticity Collateral sprouting, substitution of function, neurogenesis, brain tissue implants Genetics, Evolution, and Behavior “Nature versus Nurture” and adoption studies Application: Health and Wellness Stress and self-talk
IV.Neuroscience The relationship between brain and behavior.
The part of the neuron responsible for carrying a message
Biological bases of behavior
Get Ready Choose a speaker for your group. The speaker should write his/her name at the top of one of the columns. When everyone is ready, we’ll start.
Modules 4 & 6 The Biology of Mind 1. Neuron Billion - Communication System.
Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior. Neurons and Synapses Types of Neurons SensoryMotor Interneurons.
Body and behavior Chapter 6. Standards Standard II: Biopsychological Biological basis of behavior IIA-1.1 Structure and function on neuron IIA- 2.1 Organization.
Neural Communication Nervous System Lower Brain System.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Note to the Instructor: The following PowerPoint slides include the core concepts and.
Neuroscience & Biological Foundations
Lecture Overview Neural Bases of Behavior Nervous System Organization
The Nervous System © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman
Chapter 2 – Neuroscience and Biological Functions
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
The Neural Control of Behavior
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior.
Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc PsychSmart INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY.
Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology.
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