2 Causes of Shock Call EMS if you suspect shock. Most common causes: Internal and external blood loss.Fluid loss from vomiting, sweating, diarrhea or burns.Allergic reactions.Call EMS if you suspect shock.
3 Shock Prevention should be started with: Broken bonesSerious burnsBleedingHead, neck or back injuries
4 Signs & Symptoms of Shock Agitated or restlessPale, cool or clammy skinRapid, weak pulseLarge amount of bleedingNausea & vomitingConfused or light-headedSleepy or losing consciousnessWeaknessSevere pain or swelling
5 First-aid for Shock Wear gloves. Perform the Emergency Action Principles.DO NOT MOVE if head, neck or back injury is suspected.Have child lie down and elevate feet 8-12”.Keep child warm, but not hot.Loosen tight clothing.Call EMS.Contact parents/guardians.Treat cause of shock if known.DO NOT give anything by mouth.
6 Bleeding First-aid Wear gloves. Apply pressure with hand using gauze pads. If needed, add more pads DO NOT remove used ones.Elevate injured area if possible unless it causes further injury.Severe bleeding can lead to shock. Call EMS.DO NOT USE A TOURNIQUET.After bleeding is controlled, bandage wound firmly but do not cut off circulation.
7 First-aid for Nosebleeds Wear gloves.Place child sitting down with head leaning slightly forward. Do NOT lean child backward or tilt head backward.Do NOT have child blow, wipe or rub the nose.Ask the child to breathe through mouth.If blood is flowing, pinch nostrils shut for minutes. Apply ice to nose.If bleeding does not stop in 15 minutes, contact parents/guardians and seek medical attention.
10 Choking & Suffocation Hazards Left in high chairs unsupervised.Sliding boards by drawstrings on coatsRattles around necks.Ribbons/strings on pacifiers.Drapery/appliance cords near infants.Toys small enough to lodge in child’s airway.Toy boxes with drop lids.Space between slats of cribs, banisters, or play equipment.Large pieces of food.Water, even a small amount.Diaper bags/plastic bags near cribs or within reach of child.
12 Examples of Choking Hazards T11-3Examples of Choking Hazards
13 Examples of Choking Hazards T12-3Examples of Choking Hazards
14 Prevention of Choking/Suffocation T13a-3Prevention of Choking/SuffocationSupervise children when eating and in high chairs.Check floor regularly for objects that may cause choking.Don’t prop bottles.Dispose of any plastic bags in child-proof containers.Have only age-appropriate toys within children’s reach.
15 Prevention of Choking/Suffocation (continued) T13b-3Prevention of Choking/Suffocation (continued)Give age-appropriate foods.Avoid feeding round foods such as hot dogs and hard candy.Encourage children to eat slowly and to chew and swallow before drinking.No strings or ribbons around children’s necks.NEVER leave young children alone with water.
16 Signs of Breathing Emergency Wheezing (high pitched sound)CoughingCan’t speak/can’t coughFlaring nostrilsClutching throat/wild gesturesBlueness around faceExcessive droolingAgitationLoss of consciousness (late sign)Sitting up, leaning forward.Head bobbing with each breath.
17 First-aid When Child is Getting SOME Air Shout for help and send someone to call EMS.Stay calm and try to calm the child.Allow child to choose position of comfort.Stay with child and watch closely for worsening of symptoms.
18 Rescue Breathing (Child) Open AIRWAY. Look, Listen & Feel for BREATH. IF child is NOT breathing:1. Send someone to call EMS.2. Keep airway open. Pinch nose shut. Give 2 breaths.3. If air won’t go in, retilt head. Give 2 more breaths.4. Check pulse. If pulse, but no breathing, give rescue breathing: 1 every 3 seconds.5. Check breathing and pulse every minute.6. Continue as long as child is not breathing or until help arrives.7. If no pulse, give CPR.
19 Differences with Infants Open airway using one finger to lift chin.Check pulse by placing 2-3 fingers on inside of upper arm, between elbow & shoulder.Seal lips tightly around mouth & NOSE to form a seal.Blow less to make chest rise & fall Blow slowly & watch for chest to rise.
20 Differences with Adults Give 1 breath every 5 seconds (about 12 per minute).May need to blow more air to make the chest rise and fall. Blow slowly and watch for the chest to rise.
21 Choking: Conscious Child or Adult Ask “Are you choking?” If child can’t make any sound, continue.Stand behind child & place your fist against stomach, just above navel. Grasp fist with other hand.Give 5 quick upward thrusts.Continue until object is coughed up or child becomes unconscious.If child becomes unconscious, follow recommendations for unconscious child.
22 Unconscious Child or Adult Open Airway. Check Breathing. If child is not breathing, give 2 breaths.If air will not go in, re-tilt head. Give 2 more breaths.If air still won’t go in, give 5 abdominal thrusts.If object is seen in mouth, sweep it out with finger.Re-tilt head and give breaths. If air goes in, give rescue breathing.Continue to do abdominal thrusts and check child’s mouth until air goes in.
23 Conscious & Unconscious Infant Position infant face down.Give 5 back blows.Put infant face up on forearm.Using 2-3 fingers, give 5 chest thrusts in center of breastbone.Lift jaw & tongue. Sweep out object with finger if you see it.Tilt head. Try to give 2 breaths.Continue until object is coughed up, breaths go in or infant breathes on own.
24 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Background Sudden and unexplained death of infant under one year. Death usually occurs during sleep.Strikes about 5,000 babies each year in U.S.NOT the same as infant choking or suffocating on an object.Baby may seem perfectly healthy.
25 T23-3SIDS Risk ReductionPlace infants on their backs or in a side-lying position in cribs. Do not place on stomach for sleep, UNLESS baby’s doctor says toUse firm mattresses in cribs. Do NOT place soft or fluffy material under infant or near headKeep baby room comfortably warm, but NOT hotDon’t smoke around childrenIf infant stops breathing, perform rescue breathing and call EMS.