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 Introduction to Programming History of programming.

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Presentation on theme: " Introduction to Programming History of programming."— Presentation transcript:

1  Introduction to Programming History of programming

2 The first programmer  The first programmer was a woman – Ada Lovelace  Who made the first computer??  xALPcyw xALPcyw

3 What is programming?  Programming is breaking a task down into small steps

4 Why learn to Program?  Programming really is fun  Programmers make lots of money  Programming is very intellectually rewarding  Programming makes you feel superior to other people  Programming gives you complete control over an innocent, vulnerable machine, which will do your evil bidding with a loyalty not even your pet dog can rival.

5 What makes a good programmer? There are a few traits which might indicate that the person would be a good programmer:  Logical  Patient  Perceptive  At least moderately intelligent  Enjoys an intellectual challenge  Star Trek fan  Female *

6 Female *  Actually, males and females make equally good programmers.  It's true that there are currently more male programmers than female, which is strange given that one of the first ever programmers (Ada Lovelace) was female.

7 How to program? Here's a quick overview of the process:  Write a program.  Compile the program.  Run the program.  Debug the program.  Repeat the whole process until the program is finished.

8 Write a program  Choose a programming language.. There are many to choose from:  Java  C  C++  Python  Create a program is usually called source code, or just code.

9 Compile a program  In order to use a program, you usually have to compile it first.  When you write a program, it's not yet in a form that the computer can use.  Computers actually only understand lots of 1s and 0s in long streams, known as binary  You can't very well write programs using only vast amounts of 1s and 0s, so you write it in a more easily-understood form (a programming language)  Then you convert it to a form that the computer can actually use.  This conversion process is called compiling, or compilation.

10 Run the program  Once you have compiled the program into a form that the computer can use, you want to see if it works:  This is called running the program, or sometimes executing it

11 Debugging  It refers to fixing errors and problems with your program.  A problem in a program is known as a bug in a program

12 Scripting Languages  You've perhaps heard about something called scripting, or maybe you've heard of languages like JavaScript, AppleScript, Tcl and others (those languages are called scripting languages).  Scripting is essentially a type of programming  Scripting languages tend to be interpreted rather than compiled, which means that you don't need to compile them - they're compiled "on the fly”  The fact that scripting languages are interpreted generally makes them slower than programming languages for intensive operations (like complex calculations)  Scripting languages are often easier to learn than programming languages, but usually aren't as powerful or flexible  For programming things like applications for personal computers, you'll need to use a programming language rather than a scripting language

13 13 Programming Languages:  Machine Language  Assembly Language  High level Language

14 14 Machine Language  The fundamental language of the computer ’ s processor, also called Low Level Language.  All programs are converted into machine language before they can be executed.  Consists of combination of 0 ’ s and 1 ’ s that represent high and low electrical voltage.

15 15 Assembly Language  A low level language that is similar to machine language.  Uses symbolic operation code to represent the machine operation code.

16 16 High Level Language  Computer (programming) languages that are easier to learn.  Uses English like statements.  Examples are C ++, Visual Basic, Pascal, Fortran and …....

17 17 Program Development Cycle: 1. Analyze: Define the problem 2. Design: Plan the solution to the problem 3. Choose the Interface: Select the objects

18 18 Program Development Cycle: 4. Code: Translate the algorithm into a programming language. 5. Debug and Test: Locate and remove any errors in the program. 6. Complete the Documentation: Organize all the materials that describe the program.

19 19 Programming Tools:  Flowchart  Pseudocode

20 20 What is a flowchart?  Logic diagram to describe each step that the program must perform to arrive at the solution.  A popular logic tool used for showing an algorithm in graphics form.

21 Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider 21 Purpose of Flowcharting:  An aid in developing the logic of a program.  Verification that all possible conditions have been considered in a program.  Provides means of communication with others about the program.  A guide in coding the program.  Documentation for the program.


23 Flowchart Turn A/C off (process) False Turn on A/C (process) True Temp > 25 (decision) End Start Temp (input) The flow chart is made up of an input, decision and the alternative processes or actions.

24 24 Example of Flowchart to show changing the score Start Set Score counter = 0 If Collides with Asteroid Change score Yes Display score

25 25 What is a Pseudocode?  A program design technique that uses English words.  Has no formal syntactical rules.

26 26 Example of Pseudocode:  Determine the average grade of a class: Declare variable score Set score variable to 0 If spaceship collides with the asteroid Get the current score Increment the score Output/display new score on the stage

27 27 Example of Pseudocode:  Determine the average grade of a class: Do while there are more data Get the next Grade Add the Grade to the Sum Increment the Counter Loop Compute average = Sum / Counter Display average

28 Home Learning Task…..See Grid

29 Useful Resources  What is computer programming ?

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