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Mental illness. What is Normal? Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Subjective Discomfort: Feelings of anxiety,

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Presentation on theme: "Mental illness. What is Normal? Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Subjective Discomfort: Feelings of anxiety,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mental illness

2 What is Normal? Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Subjective Discomfort: Feelings of anxiety, depression, or emotional distress. Statistical Abnormality: Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression. Social Nonconformity: Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct: usually leads to destructive or self-destructive behavior. Situational Context: Social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstance in which an action takes place Cultural Relativity: Judgments are made relative to the values of one’s culture The Medical Model: Mental Illness is treated as a physical disease.

3 Diagnosing Mental Illness Difficult for even professionals Case Study

4 General Risk Factors for Contracting Mental Illness Social Conditions: Poverty, homelessness, overcrowding, stressful living conditions. Family Factors: Parents who are immature, mentally ill, abusive, or criminal: poor child discipline: severe marital or relationship problems Psychological Factors: Low intelligence, stress, learning disorders. Biological Factors: Genetic defects or inherited vulnerabilities: poor prenatal care, head injuries, exposure to toxins, chronic physical illness, or disability

5 Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorders are a sign of personal weakness. Psychological disorders are incurable. People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous. People with psychological disorder behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people.

6 Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders DSM-IV-TR (text revision) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, descriptions and other information to guide the classification and diagnosis of mental disorders was published in 2000 replacing DSM-IV. It is expected that DSM-V will replace DSM-IV-TR sometime in the future. This revision of the fourth edition of the manual published by the American Psychiatric Association to set forth diagnostic guidelines.mental disordersDSM-IVDSM-VAmerican Psychiatric Association

7 History of the DSM DSM-I 1952 (describe 60 disorders) DSM-II 1968 DSM-III 1980 (Multiaxial system) DSM-III-R 1988 DSM-IV 1993 DSM- IV-TR 2000 (Over 200 disorders)

8 Multiaxial System Axis I: Major clinical syndrome Axis II: Personality and developmental disordersAxis II: Personality and developmental disorders Axis III: Physical Disorders and conditions Axis IV Severity of psychosocial stressors Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) ScaleAxis V Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale

9 A multiaxial evaluation Patient: 58 year old male Axis I: Major depression, alcohol dependence Axis II: Dependent Personality disorder Axis III: Alcoholic cirrhosis of liver Axis IV: Severity: 3 (moderate) Anticipated retirement and change in residence, with loss of contact with friends Axis V:GAF 44 Highest in in past year :55

10 Overview of Mental Disorders in DSM-IV Disorders of Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence Mental Retardation, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Delirium, Dementia, and Cognitive Disorders Medical emergencies, Alzheimer’s, Amnesia Mental Disorders due to a General Medical Condition “Organic”; Hypothyroidism, Infection, Anemia, Cancer Substance-Related Disorders Abuse vs. Dependence, Intoxication, Withdrawal, Persisting Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia subtypes, Delusional Disorder, Psychosis NOS

11 Overview of Mental Disorders in DSM-IV (cont’d) Mood Disorders Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, PTSD, Phobias, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Somatoform Disorders Conversion Disorder, Hypochondriasis, Pain Disorder Factitious Disorders Munchausen’s vs. Malingering

12 Overview of Mental Disorders in DSM-IV (cont’d) Dissociative Disorders “Multiple Personality Disorder”, Fugue, Amnesia Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Dysfunction, Paraphilias, Transvestite vs. “Transsexual” Eating Disorders Anorexia, Bulimia Sleep Disorders Dyssomnia, Narcolepsy, Parasomnia (Terrors, Sleepwalking) Impulse-Control Disorders Kleptomania, Pyromania, IED, Pathological Gambling

13 Axis I Major Clinical Syndrome Disorders usually first evident in infancy, childhood or adolescence.(ADD, Bulimia and anorexia) Organic Mental disorder: Temporary or permanent dysfunction of brain tissue caused by diseases or chemicals. Psychoactive substance use disorders Schizophrenic Disorders: (Grossly disorganized behavior, delusions, and hallucinations) Delusional disorder: Mood Disorder Anxiety disorders Somatoform disorders Dissociative disorders Psychosexual disorder Back

14 Axis II: Personality and Developmental Disorders Personality Disorders: Disorders are patterns of personality traits that are longstanding,maladaptive, and inflexible and involve impaired functioning or subjective distress Specific Developmental disorders: Autism, Mental retardation, reading, writing and arithmetic disorders Back

15 Axis III Physical disorders and conditions Physical disorders or conditions are recorded on this axis. Examples: Diabetes, arthrities, and hemophilia Back

16 Axis IV Severity of Psychosocial stressors (back)(back CodeTermAdult Example 1NoneNo Relevant events 2Mild Starting or graduating school 3ModerateLoss of job 4SevereDivorce 5ExtremeDeath of loved one 6Catastrophic Devastating natural disaster

17 Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning Scale 90-Absent or minimal symptoms, good functioning in all areas 60 Moderate symptoms or difficulty in social, occupational, or school functioning. 30 Behavior considerably influenced by delusions or hallucinations, serious impairment in communication or judgment, or inability to function in almost all areas 10 Persistent danger of severely hurting self or others BACK

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