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Developmental Psychology Infancy Psychosocial Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust.

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Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology Infancy Psychosocial Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developmental Psychology Infancy Psychosocial Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust

2 Developmental Tasks-Infants Maturation of sensory, perceptual and motor functions Attachment Sensorimotor intelligence and early causal schemes Understand nature of objects and creating categories Emotional development

3 Attachment Theory 1.What is attachment? 2.Why is it important? 3.What are attachment styles? Secure Anxious-avoidant Anxious-resistant Disorganized

4 Attachment theory continued… Operationalize attachment-promoting interaction between caregiver and infant. **The provision of consistent, warm and sensitive care.

5 Factors influencing caregiver sensitivity 1.Cultural and subcultural differences – what does it mean to “spoil” an infant? When is an infant being too dependent? 2.Contemporary factors - parental response to prematurity** 3.Infant characteristics - temperament, prematurity** 4. Caregiver’s personal life story or Attachment Representation **Research is mixed…many studies show no difference in attachment resulting from prematurity.

6 Cultural Relevance? Primary vs. Multiple Caregivers Timing of emphasis on autonomy Value of individuality vs. group Independence vs. Dependence Beliefs about infant needs, e.g. protection, self control, obedience, etc.

7 Temperament-pg. 146 Definition: Biologically based and innate traits ( Development of Psychopathology) Or Constitutionally based characteristics identified in early childhood that show up in emotional and physiological reactivity and self-regulation (Development of Psychopathology) Interaction between caregiver and infant is influence by temperament.

8 Prematurity - Infant Impact Biological presdisposition to seek proximity and contact may be disrupted –Touch –Visual Cues may be more subtle and disorganized

9 Prematurity - Parental Response Fragility of infant may lead to fear/reluctance. Emotional and physical fatigue may reduce mother’s ability to connect. Bonding with a premature infant is more demanding. Fear/anxiety about infant’s wellbeing may impact parental response. Father involvement helps him increase confidence, comfort, feeling valuable.

10 Another intervention “Preventing Preschool Externalizing Behavior Problems Through Video-Feedback Intervention in Infancy” The hypotheses? –That VIPP and VIPP-R would result in a decrease in behavior problems in preschool. –Sensitive parenting, temperament, social support, and stress to be correlated with behavior problems.

11 The method First time mothers with infants 7-10 months old Mothers interviewed to assess their own attachment –Insecure, dismissing –Insecure, preoccupied –Insecure, unresolved 81 mothers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: –Control group –VIPP group –VIPP-R group

12 Measures Attachment assessment 3 day diaries of babies activities Sensitive responsiveness Child-mother attachment Temperament at 6 months Maternal temperament Support and stress

13 The results? The VIPP group had a lower frequency of behavior problems than the other two groups…11% vs. 42% 11% is the same rate of problems as the general population Children’s reactivity, crying duration and internalized problem behavior were positively correlated. Mother’s social support was negatively correlated with reactivity, crying duration, internalizing and externalizing problem behavior No relationship between mother’s sensitivity and child’s behavior problems.

14 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Birth-18-24 months: Sensorimotor 2-5 or 6 years: Preoperational 6 or 7-11-12 years: Concrete Operational Adolescence: Formal Operational

15 DVD-The Secret Life of the Brain Discussion questions 1.What is the reasoning behind changing the hospital environment for premature infants? 2.What are three examples of developmental tasks discussed in the dvd? 3.What are some of the problems faced by premature infants? 4.What is meant by the phrase “use it or lose it?”

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