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Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys Survey Design Workshop

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1 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys Survey Design Workshop
Fieldwork: Survey Quality Control MICS Survey Design Workshop

2 Objectives Identify factors affecting the accuracy and reliability of survey data How to prevent and correct errors The essential role of supervision in the field and providing feedback to the team

3 Accuracy and reliability
The accuracy (or validity) of a measurement is concerned with the net difference between the mean of the measurements obtained and the true value (related to the size of the bias) The reliability (or precision) of a measurement refers to the degree to which repeated measurements give consistent values (related to the size of the confidence interval)

4 Accuracy and reliability
Unreliable but accurate imprecise but unbiased Unreliable & inaccurate imprecise & biased Reliable but inaccurate precise but biased Reliable & accurate precise & unbiased  BIASED

5 Overview of presentation
Data collection Field supervision

6 Data Collection Organisation of daily work,
Security of staff and equipment

7 Data Collection: Implementation of sample
Non-response: failure to obtain information for selected households, eligible women, or children A potentially serious bias that can be minimized Interviewers will need to make return visits to households (call-backs)

8 Data Collection: Implementation of sample
Types of non-response: Interviewer is unable to do the selected household Interviewer unable to meet eligible respondents Respondent refuses to be interviewed

9 Data Collection: Implement. of sample
Types of non-response: Interviewer is unable to do the selected household.  Why? Structure not found Occupied structure inaccessible Structure non-residential, vacant, or demolished

10 Data Collection: Implement. of sample Types of non-response:
Interviewer unable to meet eligible respondents.  Why? No one at home at time of call Respondent temporarily absent Will need call-backs

11 Call-backs Interview that is not completed requires a “call-back” or follow-up visit Three call-backs required (different times and days) Supervisors and interviewers keep track using control sheets Requires good tracking of work to ensure that all planned interviews are completed before leaving cluster

12 Data Collection: Implement. of sample Types of non-response:
Respondent refuses to be interviewed. Why?  What to do? Approach respondent from her point of view Postponed interview to another day Have supervisor/field editor revisit the respondent The number of refusals should be closely monitored. Need to find out reasons for frequent refusals.

13 Data Collection: Monitoring field work
Training is a continuous process Observation and supervision throughout the fieldwork are a part of the training Team supervisors and field editors play very important roles in continuing this training and in ensuring the quality of MICS data

14 Data Collection: Monitoring field work Fieldwork control sheets
Direct observation of interviews Review of completed questionnaires (editing) Spot-checking households and HH composition

15 Systematic Spot Checking
How to spot-check household composition? Supervisors should complete columns 2-6 in the HH questionnaire and compare with that of the interviewer Check about 5% of households (5-6 per week) All team members must be spot-checked; provide feedback if necessary

16 Fieldwork Control Sheets
Interviewers’ work is monitored and evaluated by keeping accurate record of assignments Both supervisors and interviewers have control forms to maintain These forms should be returned to the director of field operations along with the completed questionnaires Interviewer is responsible for ensuring that control sheet is up-to-date

17 Observing Interviews, part 1
To evaluate and improve interviewer performance To look for errors and misconceptions that cannot be detected through editing Why? Precise but inaccurate answers Who observes? The supervisors or field editors Who should be observed? Every interviewer To check if interviewer is editing h/er own work before leaving HH

18 Observing Interviews, part 2
How often? 5-6 interviews per week, more at start of fieldwork How? Just take notes without disrupting the interview What to do after? Supervisors reviews questionnaires with interviewer, highlight issues and proposes solution and training

19 Editing Questionnaires in the Field
Fundamental to survey quality Need to ensure: Accurate and complete information in each questionnaire Correct count of questionnaires

20 Editing Questionnaires in the Field
Done daily by field editor; supervisor can assist Editing of all questionnaires must be completed BEFORE leaving cluster Results and errors are discussed with interviewers Interviewers should go back to HH for correction

21 Evaluating Interviewers Performance
Daily discuss the quality of interviewers work Point out mistakes discovered during observation of interviews or noticed during editing Discuss examples of actual mistakes, but be careful not to embarrass individual interviewers. Re-read relevant sections from the Interviewer's Manual with the team to resolve problems. Encourage the interviewers to talk about any situations they encountered in the field Discuss whether situations are handled properly, and how to do it in the future

22 Overview of presentation
Data collection Field supervision

23 Field supervision Who should go to Field supervision?
Supervision team, Senior staff from Implementing agency, stakeholders, UNICEF staff (except if strategic or political, avoid “supervision tourism”) ToR for the supervision team (around Quality control) with report after each mission Very important to put in place within the first week of fieldwork (if possible, start fieldwork in one central location)

24 Field Supervision Why Bring equipment, money, questionnaires …
Visit teams to observe interviews, review work Re-visit selected clusters; spot-check households Bring back completed and edited questionnaires to central location for data entry

25 Field Supervision: Field Check Tables (FCT)
FCT are an essential tool for field supervision Based on already entered questionnaires brought back from fieldwork by supervision missions Generated by data entry teams on a weekly basis Provide a full range of information about the quality of the data already collected Provide information on the work of each team and each interviewer To be shared on a regular basis with RO and HQ Survey Coordinators: Don’t go out without them

26 Field Check Tables FC-2W: Eligible women per household Mean number of eligible women per household, according to interviewer team Team Urban Rural Number of completed households Number of eligible women in those HHs Mean number of eligible women per HH Target not met Team 1 46 65 1.41 86 73 0.85 Team 2 172 243 214 225 1.05 Team 3 139 158 1.14 82 119 1.45 Team 4 197 236 1.20 120 112 0.93 Team 5 116 131 1.13 161 190 1.18 Total 670 833 1.24 663 719 1.08 Note: Number of women that are expected to be found per HH is country-specific and defined in the sample design (it usually differs by urban/rural areas). The target is the minimum mean number of de facto eligible women per HH that we hope to find, and should be > 80% of what was expected at the time of sample design. Thus, if we expected to find 1.2 women per HH at the time of sample design, teams should be finding a minimum of 0.96 women per HH. Survey managers should provide data processors with the country-specific targets. Example: MICS sample was drawn based on the expectation of finding 1.46 women per HH in urban areas and 1.24 women per HH in rural areas. Targets for this table are for teams to find at least 1.17 women per HH (80% of 1.46) in urban areas and 0.99 women per HH (80% of 1.24) in rural areas.

27 Age ratio (women 15/ women 14)
Field Check Tables FC-4W: Age displacement: women Number of women age years listed in the household schedule by single year of age and age ratio 15/14, according to interviewer team Team Women's age ( years) TOTAL Age ratio (women 15/ women 14) Target not met 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Team 1 10 11 8 7 9 64 0.73 Team 2 68 0.78 Team 3 79 1.18 - Team 4 5 6 67 0.38 Team 5 74 Total 59 62 56 46 44 40 352 0.83 Note: Target is an age ratio of women age 15 / women age 14 > 0.8

28 FCT : What else ? USE THEM!

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