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8 Advertising Design: Message Strategies and Executional Frameworks

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1 8 Advertising Design: Message Strategies and Executional Frameworks
Chapter Overview Message strategies. Executional frameworks. Spokespersons and endorsers. Principles of effective advertising.

2 Viagra Pharmaceutical Advertising
8 Why have drug companies shifted some of their advertising from physicians to consumers? What is your evaluation of the approach taken by Pfizer in promoting Viagra? What advertising approach is best for drugs such as Viagra? Discussion Slide

3 Message Strategies Cognitive Affective Conative Brand Generic message
Preemptive message Unique Selling Proposition Hyperbole Comparative ad Message strategy – primary tactic used to deliver the message theme. Cognitive – rational arguments using attributes and benefits: Generic – no claim of superiority – Campbell’s “soup is good food” Preemptive – must be first to state the advantage – “Crest, the cavity fighter” USP – “the only shoe with DMX technology” Hyperbole – “best in the world” Comparative – compare to another brand; many view as less believable; in some countries are illegal or socially unacceptable; choose comparison point carefully; (lesser compares to better known) avoid lies and deception

4 An advertisement by Bonne Bell using the unique selling proposition.

5 Message Strategies Cognitive Affective Conative Brand
Resonance advertising Emotional advertising Affective – evoke feelings and emotions and match them with the product; elicit emotions that affect reasoning process Resonance advertising – connect product with consumers’ experiences Emotional advertising – elicit powerful emotions that lead to product recall and choice (Hallmark)

6 Advertisement by Cheerios using a resonance, affective message strategy.

7 Message Strategies Cognitive Affective Conative Brand Action-inducing
Promotional support Conative – designed to lead directly to some consumer behavior (e.g., “call now” ads) Action – POP display – encourage impulse buy Promotional – coupons, phone-in promotions, sweepstakes

8 An advertisement by Fisher Boy encouraging consumers to enter the contest (e.g., promotional support ad).

9 Message Strategies Cognitive Affective Conative Brand Brand user
Brand image Brand usage Corporate Brand – build or enhance the brand Brand user – use celebrity endorsers – like them so you’ll like the brand; focus on user Brand image – focus on brand; develop a brand personality (e.g., Mountain Dew). Brand usage – stress uses for brand (e.g., Arm & Hammer) Corporate – promote corp. name and image

10 An advertisement by Skechers using a brand image message strategy.

11 F I G U R E 8 . 2 Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction
Message Strategies and Hierarchy of Effects Model Hierarchy of Effects Model Message Strategies Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Actual purchase Cognitive strategies Affective strategies Conative strategies Different strategies help move consumers through this Brand strategies

12 Executional Frameworks
F I G U R E Executional Frameworks Animation Slice-of-life Dramatization Testimonial Authoritative Demonstration Fantasy Informative Executional Framework – manner in which an ad appeal (e.g., fear, humor, sex, music, rationality, emotions, scarcity) is presented. Basically any framework can be used for each appeal.

13 Animation Originally only used by firms with a small advertising budget Use has increased due to computer graphics technology. Rotoscoping. Clay animation. Rotoscoping – placing hand drawn characters digitally into live sequences (Bugs Bunny and Jordan together in MCI commercials). Some Web sites to explore

14 Slice-of-Life Generally include four components: Encounter Problem
Interaction Solution The product solves the problem in everyday life scene e.g., little Susie gets her uniform dirty and fears it will never be cleaned for the championship game (but in steps Tide to the rescue)

15 Slice-of-life The text asks:
A business-to-business print advertisement using a slice-of-life executional framework. The text asks: “If the average single female breaks up with 4.3 men, avoids 237 phone calls and ignores 79 red lights per year - What are the chances she’ll read your message?”

16 Drama Use of the drama executional framework by United Airlines in a television advertisement. Click picture for video. There is a problem and solution but it also involves suspense in telling the story

17 Executional Frameworks (Continued)
Testimonials Actual Customers vs paid actors Enhance credibility Business-to-business usage Informative Used extensively in radio. Those highly involved in a product category will pay greater attention Informative – simply present the information straight forward

18 Executional Frameworks (Continued)
Authoritative Use an expert to endorse the product Works well for cognitive processing Demonstration Show how a product works

19 Fantasy An advertisement by Jantzen using a fantasy executional framework. E.g., the diamond commercial man shouting “I love this woman” and her “I love this man”

STOP INTEGRATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE For producing television commercials, access Creative Idea Hollywood Production Media Planning Site has a 3 step approach for developing an ad campaign

21 Spokespersons Celebrities CEOs Experts Typical persons
20% of all ads use a celebrity spokesperson – help create an emotional bond (esp. with younger) with the product; enhance brand equity CEO – Papa John Expert – DR or Lawyer Typical person – Wal-Mart ad; actor who portrays typical person

22 F I G U R E 8 . 4 Celebrity Endorsers Ace Hardware: John Madden
Adidas: Steffi Graf American Express: Jerry Seinfeld Amway: Shaquille O’Neal AT&T: Whitney Houston Campbell Soup: Wayne Gretzky Compaq Computers: Hakeem Olajuwon Converse: Larry Bird, Larry Johnson, Lattrell Sprewell Danskin: Nadia Comaneci Fila: Naomi Campbell, Grant Hill, Kathy Ireland, Vendela GMC Trucks: Grant Hill Hanes Hosiery: Fran Drescher Hanes Underwear: Michael Jordan K-Mart: Rose O’Donnell L’eggs: Jamie Lee Curtis MasterCard: Tom Watson Nintendo: Ken Griffey, Jr. Outback Steakhouse: Rachel Hunter Revlon: Cindy Crawford Sprite: Grant Hill Taco Bell: Spike Lee, Shaquille O’Neal, Hakeem Olajuwon

23 Source Characteristics
Attractiveness Physical Personality Likability Trustworthiness Expertise Credibility Celebrities CEOs Experts Typical persons Affects the ad’s effectiveness Jordan is one of the most trusted spokesmen – why??? Credibility – some of the other characteristics

24 Endorsers Celebrity Endorser Bo Derrick

25 Endorsers Celebrity Endorser Ringo Starr

26 F I G U R E 8 . 5 Creating an Advertisement
Means –end chain = attributes  benefits -> desired end state Leverage point – takes consumer from attribute or benefits to desired end state

27 Consistent positioning Simplicity Identifiable selling point
F I G U R E Principles of Effective Advertising Visual consistency Campaign duration Repeated taglines Consistent positioning Simplicity Identifiable selling point Create an effective flow Visual consistency – across ads; Tony the Tiger in cornflakes ads Duration – generally a campaign runs 1-2 months Tag line – They’re GRREAT! Tony the tiger Effective flow – in all types of ads – easy to follow; lead to conclusion

28 Creating Award Winning Ads
STOP INTEGRATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE Creating Award Winning Ads Access DDB Needham Agency and then sections listed below to gain information on how award winning advertisements are created. Work Recognition State of the Art 50 in 50

29 F I G U R E 8. 7 It’s everywhere you want to be. Are you feeling it?
Which taglines can you identify? It’s everywhere you want to be. Are you feeling it? Just do it. You’re in good hands. The brushing that works between brushings. Driving excitement. A different kind of company. A different kind of car. When you care enough to send the very best. The ultimate driving machine. It takes a licking and keeps on ticking. Answers: Visa, Reebok, Nike, Allstate, Colgate, Pontiac, Saturn, Hallmark, BMW, Timex

30 Beating Ad Clutter Use repetition Variability Theory
Use multiple mediums Create ads that gain attention Create ads that relate to the target audience Presence of competitor ads causes high clutter and less recall Variability – vary the ad’s settings to increase recall and effectiveness; The MasterCard ads “there are some things money can’t buy.

31 Advertisement for The Socoh Group

STOP INTEGRATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE Advertisements that did not run! Go to the “Advertising Graveyard” at Why did these ads not run? Compare these ads to the award winning ads you viewed previously. What would you change to make them effective ads?

33 Building Your IMC Campaign
Choose a message strategy for each creative brief and means-end chain. Choose an executional framework for each advertisement. Will any type of endorser by used? If so, which kind and who? What tagline will you use to ensure consistency? Using Figure 10-5 as a guide, create your advertisements.

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