Policy levers Gender equality policies. Family policies Tax/benefit policies Monitoring Cooperate with developing and emerging countries to address the gender dimensions of poverty through women’s economic empowerment
Provide paid employment-protected parental leave and promote more equal use among parents Paid parental leave (supplementary to paid maternity leave), 2008 Provide paid parental leave. Evidence suggests that : – extending parental leave entitlements had a small positive effect on the female-to-male employment ratio but only up to two years of leave; a longer leave has a negative effect on both the female employment rate; – extending paid parental leave had a small positive effect on weekly working hours among women but it was associated with an increase in the gender pay gap among full-time workers; Encourage fathers to take available parental leave, also by reserving part of the parental leave entitlement for the exclusive and non-transferable use by fathers.
Invest in childcare The OECD gender report shows that: Higher enrolment in formal childcare increases female employment on a full-time and part-time basis, and reduces pay gaps. Gender pay gaps and enrolment rates in formal childcare 2008 Sources: OECD Family database (www,oecd.org/els/family/database) and OECD Earnings database.
Tools: corporate governance codes, target- setting for leadership positions, disclosure and monitoring of progress in both public and private sectors; Some countries have introduced quotas for women in executive and supervisory boards of listed and public companies; campaigning and raising awareness to encourage greater participation and representation of women in politics. Increase the representation of women in decision-making positions Share of women on boards in listed companies, 2009 Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap Act Now. (www.oecd.org/gender)
THANK YOU and FURTHER READING! “Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now” (17 December 2012 at www.oecd.org/gender)www.oecd.org/gender