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By: Mr Hashem Alaidaros MIS 101 1. Main points Definition of Computer Hardware components: CPU : Bit and bytes Storage Input and output device Communication.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Mr Hashem Alaidaros MIS 101 1. Main points Definition of Computer Hardware components: CPU : Bit and bytes Storage Input and output device Communication."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Mr Hashem Alaidaros MIS 101 1

2 Main points Definition of Computer Hardware components: CPU : Bit and bytes Storage Input and output device Communication Device Computer Categories Computer History Information Technology 2

3 Computer Computer: A programmable, electronic device that accepts data, performs operations, presents the results, and can store the data or results Produces and stores results information Processes data into information that is organized, meaningful, and useful data Accepts data Raw facts, figures, and symbols 3

4 Computer Components o Components of Computers: 1. Hardware - The physical parts of a computer. Can be internal (located inside the system unit) or external (located outside of the system unit) 2. Software - Programs or instructions used to tell the computer hardware what to do 4

5 Hardware Components 1. Input—entering data into the computer 2. Processing—performing operations on the data 3. Output—presenting the results 4. Storage—saving data, programs, or output for future use 5. Communication devices 5

6 Hardware Components 6

7 CPU Central Processing Unit (CPU): The electronic component that consists of digital circuits such as transistors. It receives data from input devices (in digital form) and process them and then sends the results (in digital forms) to output devices. The number of CPU cycles per second determines the speed of a CPU o Megahertz (MHz) - the number of millions of CPU cycles per second o Gigahertz (GHz) - the number of billions of CPU cycles per second 7

8 CPU CPU mainly has three parts: Control Unit: Controls and organizes the entry and exit of data to/from storage units Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): it processes mathematical and arithmetic operations Registrar: it stores the values that CPU needs to operate. What is Hyper-threading technique? What is Turbo boost technique? What are Cache Memory: L1, L2, L3? 8

9 9

10 Bit and Byte Data is defined as the symbols that represent things, people, events and ideas Computers store data in digital format as a series of 1s and 0s (known as binary code) Each 1 and 0 is called a bit (the smallest unit of information that a computer can process) Eight bits is called a byte The term bit comes from “binary digit” Bytes are used to represent one character – a letter, number, or punctuation mark For example, the letter H is represented in binary code as 01001000 An exclamation point (!) is 001000001 10

11 Data Representation: How do computers represent data digitally? Data representation makes it possible to convert letters, sounds, and images into electrical signals that computer can understand Digital electronics makes it possible for computer to manipulate simple “on” and “off” signals to perform complex tasks A computer’s circuits have only two states: on and off A binary 1 represents “on” A binary 0 represents “off” 11

12 Data Representation: How do computers represent data digitally? ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) uses 8 bits for each character. Used in most personal computers Unicode Picture: JPEG, GIF Audio: WAV, MP3 12

13 Storage: RAM Random access memory (RAM) - the computer’s primary memory, in which data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU What are the differences between Read Only Memory (ROM) and RAM? 13

14 Storage: Hardisk Secondary storage (Hardisk) - consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage Format: What is Physical and Logical format? File system: What is the difference between FAT and NTFS? 14

15 Storage: Hardisk o Relationship: CPU -> RAM -> Hardisk o Hibernate vs Sleep mode in Windows o Megabyte (MB) - roughly 1 million bytes o Gigabyte (GB) - roughly 1 billion bytes o Terabyte (TB) - roughly 1 trillion bytes 15

16 Storage Unit 16

17 Storage: Optical Medium Optical medium types include: o Compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM) o Compact disk-read-write (CD-RW) drive o CD-R o Digital video disk (DVD - ROM) o Digital video disk-read/write (DVD-RW) o DVD – R o Blue-Ray 17

18 Input Devices Input device - equipment used to capture information and commands o Examples  Mice  Keyboard  Microphone  Bar code scanner  Digital camera 18

19 Output Device Output device - equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing requests  It conveys information to one or more people Examples: o Speaker o Liquid crystal display (LCD) o Laser printer 19

20 Communication Devices Communication device - equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another Occurs over: o Cable o Digital subscriber line o Wifi o Satellite 20

21 Computer Category Mobile Computer: A smart phone that is Internet enabled and provide many features in communicating with other uses. Micro-Computer or Personal Computer (PC): Small desktop or portable computer that most users use. Game Console: is a device that is designed for single- player or multiplayer video games Mini-Computer or Server: it has capabilities to serve and control other computers over a network Mainframe: It can support hundreds or thousands of users with data processing operations. Supercomputer: it is the most powerful computer and used for complex computations and mathematics. 21

22 Computer Category 22

23 First - Generation Computers (approximately 1946 - 1957) The electronic digital computers, which were introduced in 1950's ENIAC Was developed during World War II UNIVAC Released in 1951 Computer History 23

24 Second - Generation Computers (approximately 1958 - 1963) used transistors A small device made of semiconductor material Programming languages (FORTRAN and COBOL) were developed and implemented Computers used by military, government and big business Computer History (cont’d) 24

25 Third - Generation Computers (approximately 1964 - 1970) Introduction of integrated circuits (ICs) Also know as chips Keyboards and monitors were introduced for input and output Magnetic disks were typically used for storage Cheap, fast and reliable Used by small business Computer History (cont’d) 25

26 Fourth - Generation Computers (approximately 1971 - present) The invention of the microprocessor in 1971 Contains the core processing capabilities of an entire computer on one single chip Example: IBM PC and Apple Macintosh Input - keyboard and mouse Output – monitor and printer Storage – magnetic disks and optical disks The development of computer network, wireless technologies, and the internet Computer History (cont’d) 26

27 Fifth - Generation Computers (now and the future) Will be based on artificial intelligence Computers can learn, think and reasoning Voice recognition Become primary means of input Optical computers Process data using light instead of electrons Computer History (cont’d) 27

28 Computer History (cont’d) 28

29 Information Technology Information technology (IT) - any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization 29

30 Some examples of computer applications in society:  Education  Finance  Government  Healthcare  Science  Publishing  Travel  Manufacturing 30

31 Computer Category Embedded Computers: A special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product. 31

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