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1 Note: this PowerPoint presentation is copyrighted by the Center for Applied Linguistics, 2006.

2 ELLs represent the fastest growing segment of the student population in U.S. schools Rate of total K-12 and ELL enrollment growth: US, 1992/1993 to 2002/2003 (NCELA)

3 There were over 1.5 million Grades 6-12 English language learners in the U.S. according to the 2000 Census. (Migration Policy Institute, 2005) ELLs in U.S.

4 More LEP adolescents are native- born, not foreign born Source: Migration Policy Institute, 2005

5 ELLs are Diverse First language (L1) Educational background Literacy levels in L1 and English Entrance age in U.S. schools Living situation Culture Socioeconomic status Expectations for schooling Life experiences … and more ELL students enter the classroom with a variety of difference experiences including:

6 Languages Spoken by ELLs at Home United StatesTotal Spanish70.0 Vietnamese 3.3 French 3.2 Chinese languages 2.6 Korean 1.7 German 1.7 Miao, Hmong 1.3 Tagalog 1.3 Russian 1.1 French Creole 1.1 Percent speaking 10 top languages87.2 Source: Migration Policy Institute, 2005

7 Goals for ELL Middle and High School ELLs Proficiency in social and academic English High school graduation or the equivalent Post-secondary options

8 Social vs. Academic English Social English Day to day use English associated with survival Academic English Language used for schooling Specific terms, phrases, and ways of writing

9 Common Needs of Secondary ELL Students Programs to develop academic English and build knowledge of content subjects Effective instruction with attention to subject- specific language use Teachers trained to teach academic literacy and incorporate ESL methods Ways to assess their knowledge accurately

10 To help our middle and high school English language learners, we need to know where they are on the path to academic literacy.

11 English Language Learner 1 Eva left Russia at 14 where she was a good student. She also studied French in school. Her parents were university educated. Eva entered a 9th grade program in the U.S. with sheltered content courses and content-based ESL classes. Within 2 years, she exited the ESL program and was a top student in the school as a senior. Academic Literacy Eva’s Story

12 English Language Learner 2 Felipe attended school each year in a rural area of Nicaragua, but usually only about 5 or 6 days per month. The distance from his home, bad weather, and farming responsibilities kept him out of class. At 12, he came to the U.S. and he enrolled in middle school. After 3 months, he is struggling with his adjustment to school, English, and content subjects. Academic Literacy Felipe’s Story

13 English Language Learner 3 Graciela, from Mexico, came to the U.S. at age 5. She spoke Spanish at home and went to kindergarten and 1st grade classes taught primarily through Spanish. In 2nd grade, she was switched into a class taught in English. Her family moved and 4th grade was in a Spanish classroom. In 6th grade, she speaks a mixture of Spanish and English, but isn’t making academic progress. Academic Literacy Graciela’s Story

14 Diagnostic Assessments Diagnostic tests should assess: Native language literacy English oral skills English literacy, especially academic literacy Content knowledge

15 Current Challenges Middle and high school teachers underprepared to help secondary ELLs Few curricula and materials for students learning English while studying different school subjects Few accelerated courses to help students catch up Students tested in English before they know English well

16 Adolescent ELL Literacy Research Processes of second language (L2) literacy development are qualitatively different from processes of native language (L1) literacy development. L2 literacy development takes time (often 4-9 years to reach proficiency in academic literacy) Processes of L2 literacy development are influenced by a number of variables that interact with each other (i.e., L1 literacy, L2 oralcy, SES, and more).

17 Effective Instructional Practices Build and activate background knowledge and vocabulary Include attention to language in every lesson Unlock reading and writing processes and comprehension strategies Exploit the relationship between oralcy and literacy development

18 The SIOP Model A means for making grade-level academic content (science, social studies, math) more accessible for ELLs while at the same time promoting their English language development. The practice of highlighting key language features and incorporating strategies that make the content comprehensible to students. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol

19 Video The SIOP Method: Sheltered Instruction for Academic Achievement Moving to the New World Robin Liten-Tejada’s Advanced Beginner ESL, 6th Grade Social Studies Lesson

20 What Did the SIOP Teacher Do? “ Advanced beginners” Start school year as “beginners” Currently, at end of school year: Read a little bit Speak Are able to do some writing

21 What Did the SIOP Teacher Do? Incorporated Comprehensible Input Techniques Visuals, gestures, slower and simpler speech, hands- on materials, and writing key terms and student responses Cooperative grouping Activities for academic oral language practice

22 What Did the SIOP Teacher Do? Built and Activated Background for Students By connecting to students’ personal experiences By connecting to past lessons By focusing on academic vocabulary

23 The SIOP Model Preparation language and content objectives Building Background vocabulary development, student connections Comprehensible Input ESL techniques Strategies metacognitive and cognitive strategies Academic Literacy Development ( Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2004)

24 The SIOP Model Interaction oral language Practice & Application practice all 4 language skills Lesson Delivery meet objectives Review & Assessment review vocabulary and concepts ( Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2004) Academic Literacy Development

25 SIOP Techniques Teach Reading Processes By previewing the chapter’s visuals and headings By discussing the topic orally first By connecting to students’ schema

26 Newcomer Programs (Short & Boyson, 2004) Newcomer programs can have many of the following characteristics: Distinct from regular ESL Instructional strategies for literacy development and sheltered instruction Orientation to U.S. schools and culture Appropriate materials, especially for students with no/low literacy & limited formal schooling Experienced teachers and paraprofessional Various time frames and locations ESL or bilingual design

27 Bilingual Programs Content courses taught through native language of students ESL classes Maintenance of native language literacy Various time frames Fewer at secondary levels

28 Dual Language and Two-Way Immersion Programs Additive bilingualism Languages separated for instruction Mix of native English and native target language speakers Grade-level curricula Long-term commitment

29 Sheltered Programs Content taught through sheltered instruction techniques Modified curricula, materials, and time frames Professional development for all teachers of ELLs in sheltered instruction ESL classes

30 Sheltered Program Models Include Two Types of Classes Content-based ESL ESL teachers incorporate content objectives, themes, vocabulary from subject areas into ESL lessons; prime focus on language development, background building Sheltered Instruction Teachers teach grade-level academic content (e.g., science, history, math) through special strategies while at the same time promoting language development; prime focus on covering content curricula

31 The SIOP Model: Sheltered Instruction for Academic Achievement Functions of Cell Parts Gerardo Hoyas’s Multi-grade, Multiple Proficiency Biology Lesson Video

32 Multiple Assessment Measures In the video clip Projects Other options are Demonstrations and Performances Tests and quizzes Oral assessments How the SIOP biology teacher assessed what students learned

33 NCLB Affects ELLs Significant achievement gap between ELLs and other subgroups on state tests Students assessed in English in most states before they are proficient in English The definition of a highly qualified content teacher does not include knowledge of second language acquisition or ESL methods

34 Alternatives to Reduce Drop Out Alternative high school programs for ELLs Alternatives for high school exit exams Appropriate programs, instruction, and assessments from the start

35 Pathways to Academic Success 4-9 years of English language support 5- and 6-year high school plans that are promoted and not penalized (re: NCLB graduation rate) Teachers with knowledge of second language development, ESL methods, and literacy instruction Fiscal resources for adolescent literacy High stakes decisions based on multiple measures of assessment

36 Thank you forwatching!

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