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Walking and Working Surfaces INSY 3020 March 8 th, 2005 Adam Piper.

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Presentation on theme: "Walking and Working Surfaces INSY 3020 March 8 th, 2005 Adam Piper."— Presentation transcript:

1 Walking and Working Surfaces INSY 3020 March 8 th, 2005 Adam Piper

2 What kinds of Walking/Working Surfaces? Floors and Aisles Openings, Holes, Vats and Pits Runways (Catwalks) Stairs Ladders Scaffolding

3 An Unfortunate Accident A Florida maintenance worker at a warehouse was asked to repair a leaking roof – The worker was allowed to hire a temp assistant – He asked his 15 yr old neighbor to help – They climbed onto this roof using this fixed ladder

4 An Unfortunate Accident (cont’d) Spent 6 hours repairing the roof Worked around these skylights The roof is nearly 24 feet from the warehouse floor

5 An Unfortunate Accident (cont’d) The 15 yr old neighbor fell through this skylight He died from his injuries This skylight was not guarded or protected by railings of any kind

6 An Unfortunate Accident (cont’d)

7 What can we do to prevent this kind of terrible tragedy? What role should an Engineer play?

8 Injury Potential Falls from height: – Walking surface failure - planking, scaffolding, etc. – Accidental stepping where no walking surface exists. Descending stairs and thinking your are at floor level when you still have one step left.

9 Injury Potential (Cont’d) Stepping into openings, people holes, etc. Stepping off loading docks and other elevated surfaces - balconies, landings, etc., w/o guards. Deliberate stepping or jumping where no walking surface exists, i.e. suicide. Failures of guardrails and other restraining devices, such as safety harnesses.

10 Injury Potential (Cont’d) Falls from ladders: – Improper use of ladders for purposes for which they were not designed, i.e. braces, platforms, hoist supports, etc. – Improper foot wear - cowboy boots, loafers, sandals, etc. – Improper mounting or dismounting the ladder, including jumping off ladder and too rapid ascent, and descent. Keep hips between rails.

11 Injury Potential (Cont’d) – Placing ladder on an unstable base - soft, muddy, greasy, uneven, etc. – Hands-full climbing. – Failure to use safety belts.

12 Housekeeping Did you know this was the LAW? – “All places of employment, passageways, storerooms, and service rooms shall be kept clean and orderly and in a sanitary condition.” Why does OSHA care if your workplace is cluttered, dusty or non-orderly?

13 Aisles Permanent aisles and walkways should be clearly marked Must be kept clear of obstacles Must be designed with adequate space for the tasks they are used for – Forklift operation – People traffic – Emergency Egress (Life Safety Code)

14 Floor Loading The rated load limits for a floor, mezzanine, platform, roof, etc. must be… – Determined by a structural professional – indicated on a permanent plate affixed in an obvious place for that working surface You must not allow loads above capacity, under any circumstances.

15 Floor & Wall Openings Hatchways, ladderways, stairways, skylights, pits, manholes, chutes Must prevent people and materials from falling through – Even if people can’t fit through the opening, tools/materials still might Can have no more than 1 inch of open space without some kind of cover/railing/etc. In lieu of a railing/cover, a permanent attendant to ensure no one or nothing falls through is required

16 Stairs Fixed stairs are required… – If regular travel from one level to another is required – If daily travel is required to other levels that contain harmful substances – If the daily carrying of equipment, materials or tools is required Ladders can be used instead if the destination is not another level but a tank, crane, platform, etc.

17 Stairs (cont’d) Stairs must be designed according to strict guidelines – Rise / Tread Run (must have angle 30 - 50°) – Width – Treads on stairs/steps – Platforms / landings – Railings – Vertical Clearance – Shape (spiral, winding, etc.)

18 Ladders Types of Ladders – Portable Stepladders Extension Ladders Straight Ladders Wood, fiberglass, or metal – different rules – Fixed

19 Ladders (cont’d) Requirements – Rungs (12” apart and 16” wide) – Ladder must reach 3 ft above the surface – Extension ladder sections must overlap 3 ft (more if more than 36 ft long) – No stepladders can exceed 20 ft. high – If ladder tips over, it must be inspected – Must ascend and descend facing the ladder – If fixed ladders exceed 20 ft, must have a landing or platform every 20 ft. (every 30 ft if a cage is present)

20 Ladders (cont’d) – Pitch of a ladder: 75-90 degrees for portable and fixed ladders. Portable - 4:1 ratio, one foot out at the base for every four feet up. – Fixed Ladders: 75-90 degrees. Clearance between the ladder and the wall - seven inches. Rear clearance - 30 inches. – Broken Ladders: Never used Immediately taken out of service until repaired or replaced.

21 Scaffolding Definition – “Any temporary elevated platform and its supporting structure used for supporting workmen or materials or both. “ Very detailed regulations (33 pages) Designed for 4x the intended load – May not exceed 1x that load May not work during storms or high winds Must remove from use and inspect/repair if there is any reason to suspect damage Must be kept clean and free of clutter

22 Railings Standard Railing – Top rail + mid rail + posts – 42” high (mid rail = 21” high) – Must withstand 200 lb of horizontal force – Used to guard openings or other places where people may fall – Posts can be no more than 8 ft apart (depending on situation, may need to be 6 ft apart) Standard Toeboard – ¼” from floor – 4” high – Keeps material from falling on people below and people from sliding under mid rail and falling

23 Railings (cont’d) Standard Stair Railing – Used when there is no wall next to the stairs – Similar to standard railing except in height Only 30-34” high Standard Handrail – Used when there is a wall next to the stairs – 3” from a wall, bracketed to wall every 8 ft 30-34” high When to use a standard rail or handrail… – If there are 4 or more risers – At least one handrail on right side of enclosed stairs – A rail on each side of a stairway that is open – If stair width greater than 44 in., need a handrail on each enclosed side and a rail on each open side – If stair width greater than 88 in., need an intermediate rail in the middle

24 Can you identify what is wrong in the following pictures?














38 Questions & Comments

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