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Trainer Tips This subpart is long, a comprehensive review will require a minimum of two hours of class time Choose the applicable sections to cover based.

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Presentation on theme: "Trainer Tips This subpart is long, a comprehensive review will require a minimum of two hours of class time Choose the applicable sections to cover based."— Presentation transcript:


2 Trainer Tips This subpart is long, a comprehensive review will require a minimum of two hours of class time Choose the applicable sections to cover based on the work environment(s) of the students Limit discussion in other areas(i.e. mobile scaffolds) The most cited areas of the subpart are found in housekeeping requirements and requirements for guarding floor and wall openings and holes

3 Trainer Objectives Describe Subpart D general requirements Explain the requirements for guarding floor openings and holes. Describe the requirements for stairways and railings. Identify applicable standards relating to ladders.

4 4 Subpart D - Walking/Working Surfaces (1910.21 - 30) Open-sided floors Housekeeping Wet floors Floor holes Stairways and stair platforms - Railings Standard: 1910. * * * * * *Average number of Federal OSHA citations issued between 2000 and 2003

5 What’s wrong with this picture?

6 Housekeeping 1910.22 (a)(1) All places of employment clean and orderly and in a sanitary condition Workrooms clean & dry Platforms, mats, or other dry standing places for wet processes

7 Floors kept free from protruding nails, splinters, holes, or loose boards. Housekeeping 1910.22 (a)(3)

8 Aisles 1910.22 (b)(1) Sufficient safe clearance maintained where mechanical handling equipment is used Aisles and passageways kept clear and in good repairs No obstruction across or in aisles that could create a hazard

9 Aisles 1910.22 (b)(2) Permanent aisles and passageways shall be appropriately marked.

10 Floor Loading 1910.22 (d)(1) Floor load ratings must be posted In a conspicuous place to which they relate

11 Floor Openings 1910.23 (a)(1) Every stairway floor opening guarded by a standard railing Railing provided on all exposed sides (except at entrance to stairway)

12 Floor Openings 1910.23 (a)(2) Every ladderway floor opening or platform shall be guarded by a standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides (except at entrance to opening), with the passage through the railing either provided with a swinging gate or so offset that a person cannot walk directly into the opening.

13 Floor Openings 1910.23 (a)(3)(ii) Where operating conditions necessitate the feeding of material into any hatchway or chute opening, protection shall be provided to prevent a person from falling through the opening.

14 Floor Openings 1910.23 (a)(4) Every skylight floor opening and hole shall be guarded by a standard skylight screen or a fixed standard railing on all exposed sides.

15 Floor Openings 1910.23 (a)(5) Every pit and trapdoor floor opening, infrequently used, guarded by a floor opening cover of standard strength and construction. While the cover is not in place, the pit or trap opening constantly attended by someone or protected on all exposed sides by removable standard railings.

16 Clarification of 1910.23 as it would apply to repair pits Bus and rail car inspection and repair pits. When the pit or pits are not covered, employees walking are least 6 feet from the pit would not be in violation of 29 CFR 1910.23(a)(5), provided the following actions are implemented by the employer: –The employee's safety training program will instruct employees to maintain a 6 feet clear distance from uncovered pits – Highly visible contrasting lines will be installed 6 feet from the edge of pits –Employer will install caution signs and ensure compliance by employees

17 Floor Openings 1910.23 (a)(7) Every temporary floor opening shall have standard railings, or shall be constantly attended by someone.

18 Floor Openings 1910.23 (a)(8) Every floor hole into which persons can accidentally walk shall be guarded by either: –(i)A standard railing with standard toeboard –(ii)A floor hole cover of standard strength and construction. While the cover is not in place, the floor hole shall be constantly attended by someone or shall be protected by a removable standard railing. Floor opening large enough to fall through

19 Floor Openings 1910.23 (a)(10) Where doors or gates open directly on a stairway, a platform shall be provided, and the swing of the door shall not reduce the effective width to less than 20 inches.

20 Wall Openings 1910.23 (b) (1)Every wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet shall be guarded by one of the following: –(i)Rail, roller, picket fence, half door, or equivalent barrier. 30" 18" 4' Wall Opening W x H Drop

21 Every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet or more guarded on all open sides except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. Open-sided Floors 1910.23 (c)(1)

22 The railing shall be provided with a toeboard wherever, beneath the open sides, –(i)Persons can pass, –(ii)There is moving machinery, –(iii)There is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard

23 Open-sided Floors 1910.23 (c)(3) All open-sided floors, walkways, platforms, or runways above or adjacent to dangerous equipment, guarded with a standard railing and toe board Equipment traverses over wiring pit opening

24 Stairways 1910.23 (d)(1) Every flight of stairs having four or more risers shall be equipped with standard stair railings or standard handrails.

25 Railings 1910.23 (e)(1) A standard railing consists of top rail, intermediate rail, and posts Have a vertical height of 42 inches nominal from upper surface of top rail to floor. The top rail smooth-surfaced The ends of the rails shall not constitute a projection hazard

26 09/16/1983 - Clarification of our railing requirements in 29 CFR 1910.23(e) Other types, sizes, and arrangements of railing construction are acceptable provided they meet the following conditions: –A smooth-surfaced top rail at a height above floor, platform, runway, or ramp level of 42 inches nominal;

27 09/16/1983 - Clarification of our railing requirements in 29 CFR 1910.23(e) –A strength to withstand at least the minimum requirement of 200 pounds top rail pressure; –Protection between top rail and floor, platform, runway, ramp, or stair treads, equivalent at least to that afforded by a standard intermediate rail.

28 Directives STD 1-1.10 - Height of Guardrails in General Industry Applications OSHA Regional Administrators/Area Directors shall classify technical violations of 29 CFR 1910.23 (e)(1) as de minimis violations, where the employer has provided guardrails which meet the following specifications:

29 Directives STD 1-1.10 - Height of Guardrails in General Industry Applications 1. Existing guardrailing shall consist of a top rail, intermediate rail, and posts, or equivalent, and shall have a minimum vertical height of 36 inches to 44 inches from the upper surface of the top rail to the floor, platform, runway or ramp level. 2. Guardrailings with heights greater than 44 inches are permissible provided the extra height does not create a dangerous situation for employees. Openings beneath the top rail that would permit the passage of a 19 inch or larger spherical object would create an unsafe condition, therefore, additional mid-rails may be necessary

30 30" - 34" A stair railing shall be not more than 34 inches nor less than 30 inches from upper surface of top rail to surface of tread in line with face of riser at forward edge of tread. Railings 1910.23 (e)(2)

31 Railings 1910.23 (e) (i)Wood railings, posts at least 2 by 4 (i)Posts < 6 feet (i)Rails, at least 2 by 4 (ii)Pipe railings at least 1 1/2 inches nominal diameter (ii)Posts spaced not more than 8 feet on centers.

32 Railings 1910.23 (e) For structural steel railings –(iii)Posts and top and intermediate rails 2 by 2 by 3/8 inch angles –(iii)Posts spaced not more than 8 feet on centers.

33 Railings 1910.23 (e)(iv) The completed structure shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the top rail. 200 lb.

34 Railings 1910.23 (e)(4) A standard toeboard 4 inches nominal in vertical height Securely fastened Not more than 1/4-inch clearance above floor level. Openings not over 1 inch 1" max 1/4" max Floor level

35 Railings 1910.23 (e)(4) Where material is piled to such height that a standard toeboard does not provide protection, paneling from floor to intermediate rail, or to top rail shall be provided.

36 Fixed Stairs 1910.24 (b) Provided for regular travel between levels Where equipment requires attention routinely Fixed stairs provided where access to elevations is daily For work around acids, caustics, gases, or other harmful substances

37 Fixed Stairs 1910.24 (d) Fixed stairs minimum width of 22 inches

38 Standard Interpretations 04/27/2000 - Minimum width of means of egress; The OSHA egress requirements, §1910.37(f)(6), state that the minimum width of any way of exit access shall in no case be less than 28 inches and the OSHA stair requirement, §1910.24(d), requires a minimum stair width of 22 inches. Is an employer out of compliance with this egress standard if the stairs are 22 inches in width? Reply: Yes, if the stair is a means of egress component (the exit access, the exit itself, or exit discharge). All stairs, and other approved egress components, must meet the Subpart E, Means of Egress standards.

39 Stairs installed between 30º and 50 º from horizontal Must have uniform riser height and tread depth, with less than a 1/4-inch variation Fixed Stairs 1910.24 (e)

40 Fixed Stairs 1910.24 (f) "Stair treads." All treads shall be reasonably slip-resistant and the nosings shall be of nonslip finish. Rise height and tread width shall be uniform throughout any flight of stairs including any foundation structure used as one or more treads of the stairs.

41 Fixed Stairs 1910.24 (g) "Stairway platforms." Stairway platforms shall be no less than the width of a stairway and a minimum of 30 inches in length measured in the direction of travel.

42 Fixed Stairs 1910.24 (h) "Railings and handrails." Standard railings shall be provided on the open sides of all exposed stairways and stair platforms. Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of closed stairways preferably on the right side descending. No handrail on stairs leading to machine pit

43 Fixed Stairs 1910.24 (i) Vertical clearance above any stair tread at least seven (7) feet 7 feet minimum

44 Portable Wood Ladders 1910.25 (b)(i)All wood parts free from sharp edges and splinters; (b)(i)Visually acceptable (c)(2)Stepladders 20' max. (c)(3)(ii)(a)Single ladders 30' max.

45 Portable Wood Ladders 1910.25 (d) (1)(i)Maintained in good conditions at all times (1)(ii)Locks, wheels, pulleys frequent lubrication (1)(iii)Worn rope replaced (1)(iv)Safety feet and auxiliary equipment in good shape

46 Portable Wood Ladders - Inspection 1910.25 (d)(1)(x) Ladders inspected frequently Those with defects withdrawn from service for repair or destruction and tagged or marked as "Dangerous, Do Not Use."

47 Portable Wood Ladders 1910.25 (d)(2)(i) Portable rung and cleat ladder pitch one-quarter the working length of the ladder (the length along the ladder between the foot and the top support) Placed as to prevent slipping, or lashed, or held in position Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds

48 Portable Wood Ladders 1910.25 (2)(iv) Ladders not placed in front of doors opening toward the ladder unless the door is blocked upon, locked, or guarded;

49 Portable Wood Ladders 1910.25 (d)(2)(v) Ladders shall not be placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height;

50 Portable Wood Ladders 1910.25 (d)(2)(viii) Ladders with broken or missing steps, rungs, or cleats, broken side rails, or other faulty equipment shall not be used; Improvised repairs shall not be made;

51 Tops of the ordinary types of stepladders shall not be used as steps Portable Wood Ladders 1910.25 (d)(2)(xii)

52 Portable Wood Ladders 1910.25 (d)(2) (xv)Ladders used to access roof must clear roof line by minimum of three feet (xx)No climbing the bracing on the back legs

53 Portable Metal Ladders 1910.26 (a)(1)Designed to produce a ladder without structural defects or accident hazards such as sharp edges, burrs, etc. (a)(1)(v)Slip resistant rungs

54 Portable Metal Ladders 1910.26 Rungs corrugated or knurled Ladders must be maintained in good usable condition at all times. Ladders having defects are to be marked and taken out of service until repaired by either maintenance department or the manufacturer

55 Portable Metal Ladders 1910.26 (a)(2)(iii) Length of LadderFeet of Overlap Up to 36 feet Over 36 but less than 48 Over 48 up to 60 3 feet 4 feet 5 feet

56 Portable Metal Ladders 1910.26 (a)(3)(iii)The length of a stepladder is measured by the length of the front rail. (a)(3)(iii) To be classified as a standard length ladder, the measured length shall be within plus or minus one-half inch of the specified length. (a)(3)(iii) Stepladders shall not exceed 20 feet in length.

57 Use of Ladders 1910.26(c) (ii)Portable ladders are designed as a one-man working ladder based on a 200-pound load. (iii)The ladder base section must be placed with a secure footing. (iv)The top of the ladder must be placed with the two rails supported, unless equipped with a single support attachment.

58 Use of Ladders 1910.26(c) (3)(v)When ascending or descending the climber must face the ladder.

59 Any Questions

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