2 THE BIG QUESTION:What were the main characteristics of the Byzantine Empire?
3 IntroductionAfter the fall of Rome, the Eastern Roman Empire continued as the Byzantine Empire with Constantinople as its center.It lasted for almost 1,000 years.Constantinople was located along land routes that connected Europe and Asia and on the Bosporus, a waterway connecting the Black and Mediterranean SeasIt was surrounded on three sides by water and had thick city walls, making it almost invulnerable to attack
5 BYZANTINE governmentThe Byzantines saw themselves as simply continuing the Roman EmpireByzantine emperors were all-powerful and continued an imperial system over a diverse populationThe official language of government was Latin, but most people spoke Greek (eventually Latin was replaced by Greek in the government)
7 Byzantine Culture Religion – The Eastern Orthodox Church Separate from the Catholic ChurchDid not recognize the Pope as the head of their churchHad their own Patriarch (leader)Some other issues were the use of relics vs. icons, view on the trinity and the shape of the cross displayed in churches
8 Culture continued… Developed a vibrant culture Built magnificent churches like the Hagia Sophia with its giant dome and tall spiresTaught ancient Greek textsArtists used precious materials (gold, silver, ivory) to display classical imagesEspecially known for their colorful icons and mosaics
9 Justinian (527-565) Reconquered much of the old Roman Empire Greatest achievement was the Code of JustinianCollected all of the existing Roman laws and organized them into a single codeListed all the laws and opinions on each subjectHad special laws relating to religion and required all persons in the empire to belong to the Eastern Orthodox FaithAdded new laws that pertained to women’s rights
10 ACTIVITYComplete the chart about the reasons for the survival of the Byzantine Empire. Homework: Read the document from the Code of Justinian, then anwer the questions that follow.
11 Decline of byzantiumContinuously battled the Slavs and Avars to the north, Persians to the east and spread of Islam in the south.In the 600s, Muslims took most of the Middle EastIn the 1100s, The Seljuk Turks took most of Asia MinorEuropean crusaders attacked Constantinople in 1204 and Italian cities competed for Byzantine tradeBy the 1440s, the empire was reduced to a small area around Constantinople which was finally conquered by the Ottomans in 1453
12 Byzantine influence in russia Emerged in the 9th century when Vikings organized Slavs into a kingdom centered in Kiev (other Russian cities developed in the north – Moscow & Novgorod)Early Russian cities traded with the ByzantinesByzantine influence on Russian cultureOrthodox Christianity (converted Slavs and Bulgars)Cyrillic alphabetByzantine crafts and other products
13 THE CODE OF JUSTINIAN: ON BRINGING AN ACTION TO COURT You must [determine] the proof necessary to establish the fact that you are entitled to the money which you [claim] you have deposited. Emperor Antonius, 156 A.D.He before whom proceedings are brought shall order public documents, both civil and criminal, to be produced, for the purpose of being examined, in order to [judge] the truth. Emperor Severus, 193 A.D.Persons who wish to bring an accusation must have evidence, for the law does not permit a party to inspect the documents of the other side. Therefore, if thee plaintiff does not prove his allegations, the defendant shall be discharged, even if he furnishes no evidence. Emperor Antoninus, 223 A.D.What legal principle do all three sections share? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________Why was the Code of Justinian such an important legal advance? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________