Presentation on theme: "China: Tang & Song Reunification & Renaissance Chapter 12, pg.256-276 220 CE: Han dynasty ends 220-589: era of division 589-618: Sui dynasty 618-907: Tang."— Presentation transcript:
China: Tang & Song Reunification & Renaissance Chapter 12, pg.256-276 220 CE: Han dynasty ends 220-589: era of division 589-618: Sui dynasty 618-907: Tang dynasty 960-1279: Song dynasty 1279-1368: Yuan Mongol dynasty
Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice 589 : Wendi Sui dynasty came to power Wins widespread support through Role of nomads Lowering taxes Establishing granaries
Sui Excesses & Collapse Yangdi Milder legal code Restoration of Confucian exam system Promotion of scholar-gentry Excess, waste, & wars led to collapse Yangdi assassinated in 618
Emergence of the Tang 623 : Li Yuan lays the foundation for the Tang Extends borders of the empire Attempts to assimilate nomads of the Central Asian frontier
Rebuilding the Bureaucracy Bureaucracy key to Chinese unity Revived scholar-gentry Bureaucracy staffed by scholar-gentry Offset power of the nobility
The Examination System Emphasized Confucian thought Exam system expanded Meritocracy exists, but birth/family connections still most important
State & Religion Buddhism spread rapidly during era of division (b/t fall of Han & rise of Sui) Mahayana/Pure Land = mass appeal Chan/Zen = elite appeal Buddhism = cultural, political force Maintained support during early Tang Empress Wu
Anti-Buddhist Backlash Confucian revival threatened Buddhism Daoism & Confucianism counter Buddhism’s popularity Persecution under Wuzong Confucianism re-emerges as central ideology Buddhism remains influential minority
Tang Decline, Rise of Song 713-756 : Xuangong’s rule = climax of Tang civilization Yang Guifei 800s : Tang collapse by: Nomadic groups Powerful provincial governors Worsening economic conditions
Founding of the Song 960 : Zhao Kuangyin establishes Song dynasty Nomadic Khitans/Liao dynasty remain influential in north Tribute paid to Khitans for peace Sinification
Song Politics Song = less powerful than Tang Weakened military Strengthened scholar-gentry →Bureaucracy becomes bureaucratic: large, ineffective government
Confucian Revival Neo-Confucianism: Virtue could be cultivated Tradition over new, foreign ideas Particularly stressed lessons of five relationships Patriarchal
Decline & Reform Decline: Held hostage by threat of nomadic groups Reform: Legalist & interventionist ideas aimed at correcting dynastic weaknesses
Reaction & Disaster Neo-Confucianism prevailed in end Reversed reforms Manchurian nomads (Jurchens/Jin) invaded Song leadership fled south Termed “Southern Song dynasty”
Golden Age: Prosperity Population shifted to south Grand Canal
Expansion of Agriculture Expanded agriculture into new lands Innovations increased productivity Redistributed land to peasants
Family & Society Confucian social ideas adopted at all levels Hierarchy became more rigid & elaborate Reinforced by law Marriage practices Early postclassical saw improvement for urban-elite women
Male Dominance Despite exceptions, women’s conditions overwhelming declined Especially in late postclassical Due to power of Neo-Confucianism Footbinding Compare upper class to lower class?
Question : In what ways was footbinding symbolic of women’s position in postclassical China?
Invention, Scholarship, & Art Extremely technologically advanced Engineering Gunpowder Compasses Moveable printing Confucian scholarship & being well- rounded valued Tang = poetry, literature Song = landscape painting
Global Connections No major changes, instead, a consolidation of Chinese civilization Extended influence over East Asia Most advanced economy in world with major technological innovations Important global impacts
Question : How did Chinese society change & stay the same during the postclassical period? Compare & contrast the Tang & Song dynasties. In what ways did each successive dynasty try to address the weakness of the previous? What were the results of these efforts?