School A place where students are educated. ( McNergney and Herbert 2001) The first and foremost a social institution, an established organization having an identifiable structure and a set of functions meant to preserve and extend social order. Primary Function : To move young people in the mainstream of society. -A place for the contemplation of reality and our task as teachers, to show this reality to our students, who are naturally eager about them.
- There is a set of curriculum which includes knowledge subjects, skills subjects and enabling subjects. - His image is concerned with preserving heritage, adapting to social change and making change happen where it is needed. - There are also teachers who facilitate learning, who teach children and youth certain types of acceptable behaviour and sees to it that children develop in all aspects: physically, emotionally, socially and academically.
Intellectual purposes of schooling - To teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing and mathematics; to transmit specific knowledge; and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills. Political purposes of schooling - To inculcate allegiance to the existing political order; to prepare citizens who will participate in the political order; to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order and to teach children the basic laws of society.
Social purposes of schooling -To socialize children into the various roles, behaviours, and values of the society. -Is a key ingredient in the stability of any society. -It enables members to help solve social problems, and by participating in socialization, schools work along with other institutions such as the family, and the church to ensure social cohesion. Economic purposes of schooling -To prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.
Technical/Economic Functions Individual Level: Schools can help students to acquire knowledge and skills necessary to survive and compete in a modern society or a competitive economy, and provide staff job training and opportunity. Institutional Level: Schools are service organization providing quality service; also they serve as a life place or work place of society for clients, employers, and all those concerned. - Refer to the contributions of schools to the technical or economic development and needs of the individual, the institution, the local community, the society, and the international community.
Community and Society Level: School serve the labor forces to the economic system, modify or shape economic behaviors or students (future customers and citizens)(McMahon, 1987), and contribute to the development and stability of the man power structure of the economy (Hinchliffe, 1987). International Level: School Education supplies the high quality forces necessary in international competitions, economic cooperation, earth protection, and technology and information exchange.
Human/Social Functions Individual Level: Schools help develop students develop themselves psychologically, socially, and physically, and help them develop their potential as fully as possible. Institutional Level: School is a society entity or social system composed of different human relationships. - Refer to the contribution of schools to human development and social development and social relationships at different levels of the society.
Community and Society Level: According to the perspective of functionalism, schools serve the social needs or functions of the local community, support social integration of multiple and diverse constituencies of society, facilitate the social mobility within the existing social class structure, reinforce social equality of the people of different backgrounds, select and allocate competent people to appropriate roles and positions, and contribute to social change and development in the long run(Cheng, 1991).
Political Functions Individual Level Schools help students to develop positive civic attitudes and skills to exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. International Level: Schools act as a place for systematically socializing students into a set of political norms, values and beliefs or for critically discussing and reflecting on existing political events. - Refer to the contribution of schools to the political development at different levels of society. Community and Society Level School plays an important role to serve the political needs of the local community, maintain the stability of the political structure, promote awareness and movement of democracy and facilitate the planned political development and changes (Thomas, 1983).
Cultural Functions - Refer to the contribution of schools to the development and maintenance of education at the different levels of society. - Refer to the contribution of schools to the cultural transmission and development at different levels of society. Education Functions
Six Major Manifest Functions of Education Socialization Social Control Social Placement Transmitting Culture Promoting social and political integration Agent of change
Latent Functions Restricting some activities Matchmaking and production of social networks. Creation of generation gap.
Functions of Schools (Calderon 1998) Conservation Function Instructional Function Research Function Social Service Function