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Chapter 27, Chapter 28 section 1 THE COLD WAR 1945- 1991.

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1 Chapter 27, Chapter 28 section 1 THE COLD WAR 1945- 1991

2 US Strategy: Containment Containment—policy of the US (and some of its Western Allies) during the Cold War Can’t do anything about communism where it already exists Will do whatever it takes to prevent the spread of communism anywhere else in the world Containment in Action (examples) Marshall Plan 1947 (economic aid to the countries of Western Europe) Truman Doctrine 1947 (military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey) Berlin Airlift 1948-1949 Founding of NATO 1949, SEATO, and CENTO Korean War 1950-1953 Vietnam War 1964-1973 The US ended up becoming involved in the affairs of countless countries during the Cold War in an effort to contain communism

3 Soviet Strategy: Communist Expansion Why expand communism? Most places in the world in 1945 were not communist (not good to be alone) Marx’s communist philosophy called for a worldwide communist state The Soviet Union viewed noncommunist states as a threat to its safety (WWII for example) Communist expansion Countries of Eastern Europe 1945-1948 North Korea 1945 China 1949 North Vietnam 1954 Cuba 1959 Movements for reform suppressed Poland 1945-1948—non communist political leaders arrested, killed Hungary 1956—non communist popular revolt crushed using military force Czechoslovakia 1968—non communist reform movement crushed using military force Secret police in the Soviet Union and all communist countries a reality of daily life, political dissent not tolerated

4 The Cold War and Nuclear Weapons After 1949 USSR and US both had nuclear weapons Soon all of the “big five” had nuclear weapons Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMS) Could be launched from anywhere, could land anywhere, couldn’t be stopped Nuclear powered missile submarines Could stay submerged virtually forever Could launch nuclear ICBMS from underwater Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) If WWIII ever broke out between the US and the USSR and nuclear weapons were used each side was guaranteed that it would be destroyed by nuclear weapons Problems with MAD?

5 Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Background Revolution in Cuba 1959—Fidel Castro comes to power Castro turns out to be sympathetic to Communism (problem for the US?) US tries to overthrow Castro using military force—Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961 Castro turns to Soviet Union for military support, they send aid and missiles to Cuba Missile Crisis US demands Soviet Union withdraw missiles, if not US considers invading Cuba To prevent more missiles from reaching Cuba US navy “quarantines” the island (nothing in, nothing out), risky why? Resolution US agrees never to invade Cuba, agrees to remove some of its missiles from Turkey USSR agrees to remove its missiles from Cuba

6 The End of the Cold War Arms Race—Incredibly expensive If a large chunk of your country’s economic resources are being used to build up your military what type of things are those resources NOT being used for? Gorbachev and the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union By the late 1980’s the Soviet Union could no longer keep up with US military spending Major unrest inside the USSR over shortages of food, clothing, housing, basic consumer goods Problem: communist economic system too inefficient to compete with capitalistic West Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, tried to implement reforms to boost economic activity Perestroika (restructuring)—economic reforms (entrepreneurship, sell things for a profit) Glasnost (openness)—governmental reforms (less censorship, more democracy in government)

7 End of The Cold War (cont.) Fall of Communism Gorbachev’s reforms allowed people to criticize the communist system openly Soviet Union no longer had the money to station troops in communist Eastern Europe Protests against communist rule spread throughout Eastern Europe (example: Solidarity movement in Poland), without Soviet troops communist governments couldn’t suppress dissent Communist governments in Eastern Europe began to fall Poland, East Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria—1989 Berlin Wall destroyed 1989, East and West Germany reunited 1990 Warsaw Pact dissolved 1991 Dissolution of the Soviet Union Soviet Socialist Republics began to call for independence Gorbachev promised free elections, hardline military leaders opposed this and tried to use force to overthrow Gorbachev—coup Russian people and loyal military stopped the coup—clear that Gorbachev had little power, resigned soon after the coup attempt Soviet Union dissolved 1991  Russia and 14 other independent states (Ukraine, Belarus, etc.)

8 Russia after the breakup of the Soviet Union

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