Presentation on theme: "Chemical screening of pesticides through risk identification methods"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chemical screening of pesticides through risk identification methods Dr. Frank SacherDVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser (TZW), Karlsruhe
2 Outline Introduction Selection of target pesticides Practical examples from GermanyAnnouncement of the German Health Authority“Saarland lists”“NRW list”TZW listsExample from Baden-Württemberg: The groundwater data basePesticide metabolitesSummary
3 Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption ANNEX I, Part B: Chemical parametersParameterParametric valueUnitNotesPesticides0.10µg/lNotes 6 and 7Pesticides - Total0.50Notes 6 and 8
4 Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption Note 6: ’Pesticides’ means:organic insecticidesorganic herbicidesorganic fungicidesorganic nematocidesorganic acaricidesorganic algicidesorganic rodenticidesorganic slimicidesrelated products (e.g. growth regulators)and their relevant metabolites, degradation and reaction products.Only those pesticides which are likely to be present in a given supply need to be monitored.
5 No information included about which pesticides have to be monitored!!! Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumptionNote 7: The parametric value applies to each individual pesticide. In the case of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide the parametric value is µg/l.Note 8: ‘Pesticides – Total’ means the sum of all individual pesticides detected and quantified in the monitoring procedure.No information included about which pesticides have to be monitored!!!
8 Standardized analytical methods for pesticides EN ISO Determination of plant treatment agents using HPLC with UV detection after solid-liquid extractionDIN EN ISO Determination of organic nitrogen and phosphorous compounds by gas chromatographyDIN 38407, part 14 (F14) Determination of phenoxyalkanoic acids by GC/MSD after solid-phase extraction and derivatisationISO Determination of selected phenoxyalkanoic herbicides, including bentazone and hydroxybenzonitriles by GC/MS after solid-phase extraction and derivatisation with diazomethaneDIN 38407, part 11 (F11) Determination of organic pesticides by automated multiple-development technique (AMD)DIN 38407, part 22 (F22) Determination of glyphosate and AMPA by HPLC, post column derivatisation and fluorescence detection
9 Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption ANNEX III, Part 2: Parameters for which performance characteristics are specifiedParameterTrueness*Precision*LOD*ConditionsNotesPesticides25Note 6* as % of parametric valueNote 6: The performance characteristics apply to each individual pesticide and will depend on the pesticide concerned. The limit of detection may not be achievable for al pesticides at present, but Member States should strive to achieve this standard.
10 Pesticides in raw waters for drinking water production Based on data from 477 water utilitiesSource: J. Kiefer & S. Sturm: Final report for research project W 1/02/05
11 Pesticides in raw waters for drinking water production Source: J. Kiefer & S. Sturm: Final report for research project W 1/02/05
12 Pesticides in raw waters for drinking water production Source: J. Kiefer & S. Sturm: Final report for research project W 1/02/05
13 Selection of target pesticides Large variety of pesticides that might occur in source watersLimited information on pesticide use in catchment areaAnalytical limitationsLimitations of costs
14 Practical strategies in Germany Decision on target list(s) for pesticides is made either bythe health authorities (on different levels)the water utilities, orthe laboratories that perform the analysesDecisions are made on federal or local levelsome Federal States have “official lists” (e.g. Saarland, NRW,…)sometimes local lists existOnly in few cases the target lists are based on land use or application of pesticides in the catchment areaIn most cases, target lists are based on analytical methods
20 Example from Baden-Württemberg: Groundwater Database Founded in 1992Objective: Sustainable protection of groundwater and source water used for drinking water productionSupporting organisations: municipalities, cities, German waterworks associations, TZWDatabase contains information e.g. about general water quality parameters, nitrate levels and pesticide concentrations in groundwaters used for drinking water productionDatabase allows for the determination and prediction of trends
21 Contribution of water utilities 20062007Water utilities672663Monitoring wells22232244Samples48044895
25 Pesticide metabolites: Desphenyl-Chloridazon Chloridazon: Herbicide against weed in beet culturesDesphenyl-ChloridazonMetabolite BChloridazonMethyl-Desphenyl-ChloridazonMetabolite B-1
26 Desphenyl-Chloridazon in Baden-Württemberg Source watersDesphenyl-Chloridazon in µg/L< 0,05110,05 – 0,110,1 – 0,590,5 – 1,021,0 – 5,0Drinking watersDesphenyl-Chloridazon in µg/L< 0,05180,05 – 0,140,1 – 0,5200,5 – 1,01,0 – 5,06
27 Desphenyl-Chloridazon: Consequences Federal Ministry of Baden-Württemberg: Immediate restriction of the use of ChloridazonProducer: Voluntary renunciation for Chloridazon in EuropeDecision about classification of Desphenyl-Chloridazon as “relevant metabolite” is made on a federal levelHessen: Desphenyl-Chloridazon is a relevant metabolite Exceedance of 0.1 µg/L means non-compliance with DWD Permission of the Health authority is required; consumers have to be informedAll other federal states: Desphenyl-Chloridazon is not a relevant metabolite
28 Pesticide metabolites: Dimethylsulfamide (DMS) Tolylfluanide: Fungicide in cultures of fruit, vegetables and plants, and in vineyardsTolylfluanideN,N-Dimethylsulfamide(DMS)
29 Dimethylsulfamide: Consequences Authorisation of tolylfluanide was immediately stopped. Products containing tolylfluanide may not be purchased and used anymore in Germany (exception: green houses)Decision about classification of dimethylsulfamide as “relevant metabolite” is made on a federal levelBaden-Württemberg: Dimethylsulfamide is a relevant metabolite Exceedance of 0.1 µg/L means non-compliance with DWD Permission of the Health authority is required; consumers have to be informedAll other federal states: Dimethylsulfamide is not a relevant metabolite
30 SummaryEuropean Drinking Water Directive does not provide any information about which pesticides have to be monitoredInformation about use of pesticides is scarce and often not available to water suppliers and health authoritiesIn Germany, decision on target list(s) for pesticides is made either by the health authorities, the water utilities, or the laboratories that perform the analysesDifferent lists on federal or local level exist and most often these lists are based on analytical capabilitiesNo general recommendation for target lists of pesticides can be given