The Exclusion Principle No two electrons can occupy the same quantum-mechanical state in a given system. That is no two electrons in an atom can have the same values of all four quantum numbers (n, l, m l, m s ).
The interaction energy of an electron (mass m) with magnetic quantum number m l in a magnetic field along the +z-direction is given by Eq. (43.17) or (43.18), where is called the Bohrmagneton. (See Example 41.4)
Moseley’s law states that the frequency of a K α x ray from a target with atomic number Z is given by Eq. (41.29). Characteristic x-ray spectra result from transitions to a hole in an inner energy level of an atom. (See Example 41.9)
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