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Chapter 9.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9

2 9-1 Carbon Compounds An_________ compound contains ________ and_________, often combined with a few other elements such as oxygen and nitrogen. There are millions of organic compounds- more than _______ percent of all known compounds.

3 Forms of Carbon __________, ___________ and__________are forms of carbon. In each form, there is a different _________ of bonded__________ atoms.

4 Diamond Cutting, grinding, and drilling tools are often coated with diamond because no substance is _____________ than ________. Diamond is an example of a _______________. In a network solid, all the atoms are linked by __________ bonds.

5 Graphite It is extremely_______ and______.
It is a good lubricant for moving______ parts in machinery. Pencil “_______” is a mixture of graphite and clay. Carbon atoms are arranged______ spaced layers.

6 Fullerenes ___________ are large hollow spheres or cages of carbon.

7 Saturated Hydrocarbons
A _________ is an organic compound that contains only the elements________ and_______. __________is a saturated hydrocarbon. In a __________hydrocarbon, all the bonds are single bonds. A saturated hydrocarbon contains the ___________ possible number of hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom. Another name for a hydrocarbon is an_________

8 Saturated Hydrocarbons
Factors that determine the properties of a hydrocarbon are the ______ of carbon atoms and how the atoms are __________. The carbon atoms can be arranged in a _________ chain, _________chain, or a _______

9 Straight Chains Look at figure 4 on page 264.
______ formula shows the type and the number of atoms in a molecule of the compound. A _______ formula show how those atoms are arranged. The number of carbon atoms in a straight-chain _________ affects the state of alkane at room temperature.

10 Branched Chains Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas are _________.

11 Rings The carbon atoms in cyclobutane are linked in a four-carbon ________. Most ring alkanes, or cyclic hydrocarbons, have rings with ______ or____________. Look at figure 5 on page 265.

12 9-1 Continued Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
A hydrocarbon that contains one or more_________ or_________ bonds is an__________ hydrocarbon. There are three types of unsaturated hydrocarbons-_________, ________, and ____________ hydrocarbons See figure 6 on page 266

13 Alkenes/Alkynes/ Aromatic Hydrocarbons
_______ – hydrocarbons that have one or more carbon-carbon________ bond. Example – ethene _______- straight- or branched-chain hydrocarbons that have one or more__________ bond __________ Hydrocarbons contain similar _________ structures

14 Fossil Fuels _______fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons that formed from the remains of________ or animals. Three types of fossil fuels are_______, __________, and_________.

15 Coal ________ is a solid fossil fuel that began to form about 300 million years ago in ancient swamp. Burning coal produces more_______ than burning other fossil fuel does

16 Natural Gas The second main fossil fuel formed from the remains of________ organisms. Used for__________, _______, and to generate some __________.

17 Petroleum The _______ main fossil fuel, also formed from the remains of marine organisms. Often known as _____oil, is pumped from deep beneath Earth’s ________. It must be separated into simpler mixtures, or fractions, such as _______ and heating ______.

18 Combustion of Fossil Fuels
The primary products of the complete combustion of fossil fuels are __________ and ________. Some _________ oxides and _________dioxide are produced during the combustion of fossil fuels. C3H8 +5O2  3CO2 + 4H2O

19 Incomplete Combustion
In stoves and furnaces, there may not be enough________ available for complete combustion of all the fuel. A deadly gas, carbon________ is produced. 2C3H8 +7O2 6CO + 8H2O

20 Acid Rain The combustion of fossil fuels causes the _______ of rain to increase. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere also dissolve in water, forming sulfuric acid, _______,and nitric acid, _________ Acid rain damages _____ structures, ______ and ______.

21 Complete the following questions
Name the three categories of unsaturated hydrocarbons Name the three main fossil fuels. What are the two primary products of the complete combustion of fossil fuels? What are three ways that carbon atoms can be arranged in hydrocarbon molecules?

22 9-2 Substituted Hydrocarbons
A hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an atom or group of atoms is a _____________ hydrocarbon. The substituted atom or group of atoms is called a__________ group because it determines the ____________ of the compound. ________, organic______, organic_____, and esters are substituted hydrocarbons.

23 Alcohols Methanol, ______ is used as a fuel in some motorcycles.
Ethanol, __________, is often mixed with gasoline to help the gasoline burn more completely. Ethanol and methanol are__________ The functional group in an alcohol is a hydroxyl group, ________ Drawing:

24 Organic Acids The functional group in organic acids is a _________group, -_______ Organic acids tend to have ___________ and___________. Drawing:

25 Organic Bases _________ are organic bases.
The functional group in an amine is an ______ group -_________ Aminos are found in _______,______, and__________.

26 Esters _________ form when organic______ react with ________.
The second product of the reaction is _________. Easter are used in many processed foods to produce__________ such as strawberry, banana, and grape. Drawing

27 Complete the following Questions
What functional groups are found in alcohols, organic acids, and organic bases? Which types of compounds can react to produce esters? What are two properties of organic acids?

28 9-3 Polymers A __________ is a large molecule that forms when many smaller molecules are linked together by covalent bonds. The smaller molecules that join together to form a polymer are __________. Poly- means “______” Mono – means “______”

29 Polymers Polymers can be classified as ________ polymers or __________ polymers. Many important types of ___________ molecules are natural polymers. ____________ polymers are developed by chemists in research laboratories and manufactured in factories

30 Synthetic Polymers ________, _______, and__________ are three examples of compounds that can be___________.

31 Rubber The supply of ___________rubber is limited.
Chemists produce synthetic rubber using hydrocarbons from__________ ________will resist wear and be less likely to leak if they are made of synthetic rubber.

32 Nylon _______fibers are very strong, durable, and shiny.
Nylon is used in ________, __________, _________,_______, and ________.

33 Polyethylene Plastic milk bottles and plastic wrap are made of ____________. The number of carbon atoms in a polyethylene chain affects the___________of the polymer. The more carbon atoms in the chain, the _________ the polymer is.

34 Review Questions Describe the two ways that polymers can be classified. Name the three synthetic polymers

35 9-3 Continued Natural Polymers
Four types of polymers produced in plant and animal cells are : _______________

36 Starches Typically, a _________ contains hundreds of glucose monomers.
Plants store starches for _______ and to build stems, _________ and roots. Simple sugars, slightly more complex sugars such as _______, and polymers built from sugar monomers are all classified as ____________.

37 Cellulose The ______________ cellulose is the main component of cotton and wood. _____________gives strength to plant stems and tree trunks

38 Nucleic Acids ______________ are large nitrogen-containing polymers found mainly in the nuclei of cells. There are two types of nucleic acids, ________ and ________ The monomers in a nucleic acid are ______________.

39 Protein A ___________ is a polymer in which at least 100 ______________ monomers are linked through bonds between an amino group and a carboxyl group. An _____________ is a compound that contains both ___________and_________functional groups in the same molecule. Proteins make up the fibers of your__________, your hair and ______________, and the hemoglobin in your blood.

40 Review Question What are four types of polymers that can be found in the cells of organisms. What two functional groups are found in amino acids?

41 Distinguishing Sugars from Starches Activity
Materials 1 slice of potato Ripe apple Bread Cornstarch Table sugar Iodine solution

42 Observations

43 Analyze and Conclude How can an iodine solution be used to distinguish a sugar from a starch? Which of the food samples contain starch? What other foods would turn dark when tested with iodine solution?

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