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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystems

2 Studying organisms in their environment
biosphere ecosystem community population organism

3 Essential Questions What limits the production in ecosystems?
How do nutrients move in the ecosystem? How does energy move through the ecosystem?

4 Ecosystem All the organisms in a community plus abiotic factors
ecosystems are transformers of energy & processors of matter Ecosystems are self-sustaining Sunlight is needed only capture energy transfer energy cycle nutrients

5 Ecosystem inputs nutrients cycle Inputs: energy nutrients biosphere
energy flows through constant input of energy nutrients cycle Matter cannot be created or destroyed Don’t forget the laws of Physics! nutrients can only cycle Inputs: energy nutrients

6 Generalized Nutrient cycling
consumers consumers consumers producers decomposers decomposers nutrients ENTER FOOD CHAIN = made available to producers nutrients made available to producers return to abiotic reservoir Decomposition connects all trophic levels abiotic reservoir abiotic reservoir geologic processes geologic processes

7 Carbon cycle abiotic reservoir: CO2 in atmosphere enter food chain:
photosynthesis = carbon fixation in Calvin cycle Recycle: decomposition return to abiotic: respiration Combustion of fossil fuels Carbon cycle CO2 in atmosphere Diffusion Respiration Photosynthesis Plants and algae Plants Animals Industry and home Combustion of fuels Carbonates in sediment Bicarbonates Deposition of dead material Deposition of dead material Fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal) Dissolved CO2

8 Nitrogen cycle Atmospheric nitrogen Carnivores Herbivores Birds Plants
abiotic reservoir: N in atmosphere enter food chain: nitrogen fixation by soil & aquatic bacteria recycle: decomposing & nitrifying bacteria return to abiotic: denitrifying bacteria Nitrogen cycle Atmospheric nitrogen Carnivores Herbivores Birds Plankton with nitrogen-fixing bacteria Plants Death, excretion, feces Fish Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (plant roots) Decomposing bacteria amino acids excretion Ammonifying bacteria Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (soil) loss to deep sediments Nitrifying bacteria Denitrifying bacteria soil nitrates

9 Water cycle Solar energy Transpiration Evaporation Precipitation
abiotic reservoir: surface & atmospheric water enter food chain: precipitation & plant uptake recycle: transpiration return to abiotic: evaporation & runoff Water cycle Solar energy Transpiration Water vapor Evaporation Precipitation Oceans Runoff Lakes Percolation in soil Aquifer Groundwater

10 Ecosystem inputs nutrients cycle inputs energy nutrients biosphere
energy flows through nutrients cycle inputs energy nutrients

11 Energy flows through ecosystems
sun secondary consumers (carnivores) loss of energy loss of energy primary consumers (herbivores) producers (plants)

12 Food chains sun Trophic levels feeding relationships
Tertiary consumer Trophic levels feeding relationships start with energy from the sun captured by plants 1st level of all food chains food chains usually go up only 4 or 5 levels Due to inefficiency of energy transfer all levels connect to decomposers top carnivore Level 3 Secondary consumer carnivore Level 2 Primary consumer heterotrophs herbivore Level 1 Producer autotrophs Fungi Decomposers Bacteria

13 Inefficiency of energy transfer
sun Inefficiency of energy transfer Loss of energy between levels of food chain To where is the energy lost? The cost of living! 17% growth energy lost to daily living only this energy moves on to the next level in the food chain 33% cellular respiration 50% waste (feces)

14 Ecological pyramid sun Loss of energy between levels of food chain
can feed fewer animals in each level Few organisms at the top due to energy loss

15 Humans in food chains Dynamics of energy through ecosystems have important implications for human populations how much energy does it take to feed a human? if we are meat eaters? Vegetarians? What is your ecological footprint?!

16 Food webs Food chains are linked together into food webs
Who eats whom? a species may weave into web at more than one level bears humans eating meat? eating plants?

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