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Chapter 9 Carbon & Its Compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Carbon & Its Compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Carbon & Its Compounds

2 Carbon more that 90% of all compounds contain the element carbon
carbon compounds are known as organic compounds organic means coming from life, but not all organic compounds come from living things, many are synthesized in the laboratory

3 Bonding of Carbon carbon atoms bond covalently with other carbon atoms
bonds can be single, double, or triple covalent bonds these bonds can form straight chains, branched chains, or rings

4 Carbon Bonds

5 Carbon Bonds

6 Properties of Organic Compounds
usually exist as gases or liquids strong odors low boiling points do not conduct electricity do not dissolve in water

7 Structural Formulas shows the kind, number, & arrangement of atoms in a molecule the dash is used to represent the pair of shared electrons in the covalent bond no dangling dashes allowed – covalent bonds form to produce stable compounds

8 Isomers compounds with the same molecular formula (C4H10) but different structures (like butane)

9 Hydrocarbons an organic compound that contains only hydrogen & carbon
classified as either saturated (all bonds between carbon atoms are single covalent bonds) or unsaturated (one or more bonds between carbon atoms is a double or triple covalent bond)

10 Alkanes saturated hydrocarbons
all single covalent bonds between carbon atoms general formula = CnH2n+2 Look at Alkane Series Chart on page 238 Least reactive

11 Alkenes unsaturated hydrocarbons
at least one pair of carbon atoms has a double covalent bond general formula = CnH2n Look at Alkene Series Chart on page 239 More reactive (double bonds break easier)

12 Alkynes unsaturated hydrocarbons
at least one pair of carbon atoms has a triple covalent bond general formula = CnH2n-2 Look at Alkene Series Chart on page 239 Most reactive (triple bonds break very easily)

13 Naming Hydrocarbons alkane series (suffix = - ane)
alkene series (suffix = - ene) alkyne series (suffix = - yne) first part of each hydrocarbon is a prefix that indicated the # of carbon atoms present in the compound

14 Prefixes for Carbon Atoms
meth- eth- pro– but- pent- hex- hept- oct– non- dec-

15 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
structures in the shape of rings have strong & often pleasant odors (aromas) Ex. benzene

16 Other Organic Compounds
carbon atoms can form bonds with other elements these compounds are called substituted hydrocarbons they’re formed when one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon chain or ring is replaced by a different atom or group of atoms

17 Alcohols one or more of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an –OH group Example: methane (CH4) to methanol (CH3OH) to name an alcohol, add the suffix –ol to the end of the corresponding hydrocarbon

18 Organic Acids acid created by the substitution of a carboxyl (–COOH) group one of the carbon-oxygen bonds is a double bond to name, add the suffix –oic most have a more common name, like acetic acid (ethanoic) & citric acid (propanoic)

19 Esters created by chemically combining an alcohol & an organic compound have pleasant odors & flavors

20 Halogen Derivatives substituting one or more of the hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon with an element from the halogen family (F, Cl, Br, or I) resulting compounds are used as refrigerants, in dry cleaning, & Freon, a coolant found in refrigerators & air conditioners

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